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Acalypha psilostachya Hochst. ex A.Rich.

Protologue
Tent. fl. abyss. 2: 246 (1850).
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Acalypha psilostachya occurs from Sudan and Ethiopia south to Malawi, Zambia, Angola and Mozambique.
Uses
In Burundi a leaf decoction is taken to treat headache, to expel a retained placenta and as a tonic for pregnant women. The leaf sap is taken to stop bleeding during pregnancy and to treat amenorrhoea. A decoction of leafy twigs is used as an eye bath and the leaf sap is used as eye drops to treat conjunctivitis. A leaf decoction is drunk or the ash of leafy twigs is sniffed to treat pain in the side. An infusion of the leafy twigs is drunk and the steam is inhaled to treat dizziness. A leaf decoction is used as an enema to treat diarrhoea, and the decoction is drunk to treat intestinal parasites.
Botany
Monoecious, erect, perennial herb or shrub up to 3 m tall; stems sparsely to densely hairy, with or without glandular hairs. Leaves arranged spirally, simple; stipules linear-lanceolate, 2–4 mm long; petiole up to 11 cm long, slender; blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2–15 cm ื 1–9 cm, base rounded to cordate, apex acuminate, margins toothed, membranous, shortly hairy to almost glabrous on both surfaces, more hairy along the midrib, (5–)7–9-veined at base and with 4–6 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary, solitary or paired spike up to 9(–12) cm long, with mainly male flowers and (1–)3–4(–8) female flowers at the base; peduncle hairy; bracts of female flowers deeply 5–7-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, the median lobe up to 8 mm ื 12 mm. Flowers unisexual, sessile, petals absent; male flowers with 4-lobed, minute, shortly hairy, reddish calyx, stamens 8, free, anthers yellowish; female flowers with 3 ovate, c. 0.5 mm long, ciliate sepals, ovary superior, c. 0.5 mm in diameter, slightly 3-lobed, densely shortly hairy, 3-celled, styles 3, free, 2–3 mm long, fringed, white. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule c. 1.5 mm ื 2.5 mm, densely shortly hairy. Seeds ovoid-globose, c. 1 mm ื 1 mm, smooth, brown, caruncle small.
Acalypha comprises about 460 species and occurs throughout the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate regions, excluding Europe. In tropical Africa about 65 species occur and in Madagascar and other Indian Ocean islands about 35 species. Acalypha psilostachya comprises 2 varieties with mainly overlapping distribution areas; var. psilostachya, with densely hairy stem and inflorescence, and var. glandulosa Hutch., which is variably hairy, but also has glandular hairs.
Ecology
Acalypha psilostachya grows in moist submontane forest undergrowth, in valleys, also in submontane grassland and swamp forest, persisting in disturbed localities, at 500–3000 m altitude.
Management
The leaves and leafy stems of Acalypha psilostachya are mainly collected from the wild during the rainy season.
Genetic resources and breeding
Acalypha psilostachya is relatively widespread in the mountainous regions of its distribution area and there are no signs that it is genetically threatened.
Prospects
The only known uses of Acalypha psilostachya are from Burundi, where it has numerous medicinal applications. Research into the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the compounds is warranted.
Major references
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1996. Euphorbiaceae, subfamilies Phyllantoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae, tribe Hippomaneae. In: Pope, G.V. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 9, part 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 1–337.
Other references
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1987. Euphorbiaceae (part 1). In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 407 pp.
Author(s)
• G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
• G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, R้duit, Mauritius
Associate editors
• C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
• R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
• A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
• R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Schmelzer, G.H., 2007. Acalypha psilostachya Hochst. ex A.Rich. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes m้dicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.