Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1
Kew Bull. 30(1): 83 (1975).
Epinetrum cordifolium Mangenot & J.Miège (1951).
Origin and geographic distribution
Albertisia cordifolia is endemic to the south-eastern coastal region of Côte d’Ivoire, where it occurs in a small area near Abidjan.
In Côte d’Ivoire the root of Albertisia cordifolia is used to treat anaemia and oedema of the legs. Root pulp with some water is used as nose drops and administered as a sedative to agitated people, complementing treatment with the root of Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. Root pulp is inserted into the vagina to treat uterus complaints and applied externally as a haemostatic. Men suffering from gonorrhoea take an enema of root pulp. A root maceration is taken as an enema or in draught as aphrodisiac and stimulant.
The roots of Albertisia cordifolia contain the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids cycleanine, isochondrodendrine and norcycleanine. Cycleanine is a neuromuscular stimulant in small doses and paralyses at high doses.
Albertisia cordifolia is considered poisonous to sheep.
Dioecious scandent shrub or liana up to 15 m long; young branches yellowish hairy, old branches with greyish or brownish glabrous bark. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 3–12 cm long, thickened at both ends, white-hairy; blade ovate to elliptical, 8–25 cm × 5–17 cm, base cordate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, papery to thinly leathery, glabrous except for the veins, pinnately veined but with 5–7 basal veins. Inflorescence an axillary few-flowered cyme; male inflorescence 2–5-flowered, with peduncle up to 1.5 cm long, female inflorescence 1–2-flowered with peduncle up to 2 mm long. Flowers unisexual, regular, pedicel 2–4 mm long; sepals 9 in 3 whorls, greyish hairy outside, glabrous and blackish inside, 3 outer sepals triangular, c. 1 mm long, next 3 sepals triangular-ovate, 2–4 mm long, 3 inner ones elliptical-oblong, 6–9 mm long, yellowish; petals 6, kidney-shaped, c. 0.5 mm long; male flowers with c. 20 stamens fused into a staminal column 2–2.5 mm long, anthers fused into a conical head c. 2 mm long; female flowers with superior ovary consisting of 6 silky hairy carpels. Fruit composed of 4–6 sessile drupes, each drupe ovoid to nearly globose, 2–3.5 cm × 2–2.5 cm, short-hairy, orange, 1-seeded. Seed ovoid to broadly ellipsoid, 2–3 cm × 2–2.5 cm. Seedling with hypogeal germination; epicotyl 4–7 cm long; cotyledons remaining within the fruit-stone.
Albertisia cordifolia flowers from April to June and fruits ripen about 2 months later. The seeds are probably dispersed by animals that feed on the fruit.
Albertisia comprises 18 species, 13 in Africa and 5 in tropical Asia. Other species occurring in Côte d’Ivoire are Albertisia mangenotii (Guillaumet & Debray) Forman in the south-western part of the country and Albertisia scandens (Mangenot & J.Miège) Forman in southern Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Leaf sap of both species is applied to treat toothache, and leaf sap of Albertisia scandens is also applied to skin affections.
Albertisia cordifolia occurs in secondary formations inside dense humid forest at low altitude.
Albertisia cordifolia roots are only collected from the wild.
Genetic resources and breeding
The area of distribution of Albertisia cordifolia is small with an estimated width of 13 km and its habitat is shrinking which may bring it in danger of extinction.
Albertisia cordifolia will probably remain locally important as a medicinal plant.
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Correct citation of this article:
de Ruijter, A., 2008. Albertisia cordifolia (Mangenot & J.Miège) Forman. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.