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Alchornea hirtella Benth.

Protologue
Hook., Niger Fl.: 507 (1849).
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Chromosome number
n = 9
Origin and geographic distribution
Alchornea hirtella is widespread in tropical Africa and occurs from Senegal east to Kenya and Tanzania and south to South Africa.
Uses
In Senegal and Congo the leaf sap is inhaled through the nose or applied to scarifications on the temples to treat headache. A decoction of the aerial parts is taken to treat ovarian trouble and gastro-intestinal afflictions. In Guinea an infusion of the leaves and stem pith is taken as an anti-cough agent and is locally applied as an antiseptic. In Sierra Leone the leaves are chewed to treat toothache, and the leaf sap is swallowed to treat diarrhoea. Bark scrapings ground with white lime are applied to treat river blindness. In Côte d’Ivoire a root decoction is taken as a sedative to treat pain; the sap is also topically applied. A root decoction is taken to treat stomach-ache and as a purgative. In DR Congo root scrapings are chewed to treat tiredness after intoxication. Dried and powdered leaves soaked in water are applied as a poultice to broken limbs. In southern Uganda an infusion of the inflorescences is taken to expel worms.
In Uganda Alchornea hirtella is one of the most favoured sources of bean stakes and branches are used in house construction. A branch split in 2 or 3 is used as a rim in basketry. Sometimes the wood is used as firewood.
Properties
The dried root bark of Alchornea hirtella yields 1.5 mg/g crude alkaloids and the dried stem bark 0.15 mg/g, both with the imidazopyrimidine alkaloid alchorneine as major component. Alchorneine causes parasympathic paralysis of autonomous ganglions because of its strong inhibition of both the vagus nerve and intestinal peristalsis in anaesthetized dogs.
Botany
Spindly, scandent to straggling shrub or small tree up to 9(–12) m tall, usually dioecious; bark smooth, pale grey; young shoots long hairy to shortly appressed hairy. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules 2–5 mm long, bristly hairy; petiole 0.5–2(–3.5) cm long, thickened at base, bent at top; blade elliptical to oblanceolate, 5–20(–25) cm × 2–8.5 cm, base cuneate, apex shortly acuminate, margins remotely and shallowly glandular-toothed, glandular at base, glabrous to roughly hairy, pinnately veined. Male inflorescence a usual terminal panicle up to 30 cm long, bracts minute; female inflorescence a terminal, lax spike up to 10 cm long, few-flowered, bracts c. 2 mm long, glandular at base. Flowers unisexual, sessile; male flowers with 2 cup-shaped, reflexed, reddish sepals, petals absent, stamens 8, filaments united into a basal plate; female flowers with 5 lanceolate, c. 1.5 mm long, acute, slightly toothed sepals, petals absent, ovary superior, 3-lobed, c. 1 mm × 1.5 mm, smooth, shortly hairy, styles 3, up to 2 cm long, united at base, red. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule 5–9 mm × 7–8 mm, smooth, dark green, slightly shortly hairy, 3-seeded. Seeds ovoid to almost globose, c. 4.5 mm × 4 mm, smooth, shiny, pale brown and mottled.
Alchornea is pantropical and comprises about 50 species, of which 6 occur in tropical Africa. Another Alchornea species with medicinal uses in DR Congo is Alchornea yambuyaensis De Wild. A leaf decoction, together with leaves of Psidium guajava L., is taken as an enema to treat fever.
Ecology
Alchornea hirtella occurs often gregariously in the understorey of evergreen forest, also in secondary forest and riverine forest, sometimes also in associated bushland, at 400–2500 m altitude.
Management
Alchornea hirtella is fast growing, and sticks used for bean support root quickly.
Genetic resources and breeding
Alchornea hirtella is common throughout its very wide distribution area and therefore not threatened by genetic erosion.
Prospects
Alchornea hirtella has several interesting medicinal uses, e.g. for pain relief and as a purgative. Very little is known about its phytochemistry and pharmacology, besides the presence of the alkaloid alchorneine, and more research is warranted.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1996. Euphorbiaceae, subfamilies Phyllantoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae, tribe Hippomaneae. In: Pope, G.V. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 9, part 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 1–337.
Other references
• Berhaut, J., 1975. Flore illustrée du Sénégal. Dicotylédones. Volume 3. Connaracées à Euphorbiacées. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du Développement Rural et de l’Hydraulique, Direction des Eaux et Forêts, Dakar, Senegal. 634 pp.
• Chifundera, K., 2001. Contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants from the Bushi area, South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Fitoterapia 72: 351–368.
• De Smet, P.A.G.M., 1996. Some ethnopharmacological notes on African hallucinogens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50: 141–146.
• Hamill, F.A., Apio, S., Mubiru, N.K., Mosango, M., Bukenya-Ziraba, R., Maganyi, O.W. & Soejarto, D.D., 2000. Traditional herbal drugs of southern Uganda, 1. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70: 281–300.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1987. Euphorbiaceae (part 1). In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 407 pp.
• Wome, B., 1985. Recherches ethnopharmacognosiques sur les plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle à Kisangani (Haut-Zaïre). PhD thesis, Faculty of Sciences, University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium. 561 pp.
• Yamada, T., 1999. A report of the ethnobotany of the Nyindu in the eastern part of the former Zaire. African Study Monographs 20(1): 1–72.
Author(s)
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Schmelzer, G.H., 2007. Alchornea hirtella Benth. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.