PROTA homepage Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1
Record display


Aloe lomatophylloides Balf.f.

Protologue
Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 22 (1877).
Family
Asphodelaceae
Synonyms
Lomatophyllum lomatophylloides (Balf.f.) Marais (1975).
Vernacular names
Ananas marron (Fr).
Origin and geographic distribution
Aloe lomatophylloides is endemic to Rodrigues (Republic of Mauritius), where it is restricted to the Grande Montagne Reserve, but was formerly widespread.
Uses
The crushed leaves of Aloe lomatophylloides are applied as a poultice to relieve muscle pain. A decoction of the leaves is taken to increase the menstrual flow. The plant is widely grown as an ornamental.
Properties
All Aloe spp. in the section Lomatophyllum, to which Aloe lomatophylloides belongs, have a common phytochemical profile and contain flavones, anthrones and chromones. In Aloe lomatophylloides the flavone isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucoside) occurs together with the anthrone aloin.
Botany
Succulent herb up to 40 cm tall; stem short, decumbent, unbranched. Leaves in a lax rosette, erect to spreading; stipules absent; petiole absent; blade lanceolate, up to 75 cm × 8 cm, apex attenuate, margin with short deltoid teeth, 5–15 mm apart. Inflorescence consisting of few cylindrical racemes, 15–20 cm long, lax, with acuminate apex; peduncle up to 12 cm long, with 2–3 branches; bracts lanceolate, up to 4 mm long. Flowers bisexual, regular, 3-merous; pedicel c. 2 cm long; perianth tubular, 1.5–2 cm long, lobes 6, free to base, pale reddish orange; stamens 6, exserted; ovary superior, 3-celled, style filiform, stigma head-shaped, exserted. Fruit a berry 15–20 mm long, many-seeded. Seeds c. 3 mm long.
Aloe comprises about 450 species in Africa and Arabia, of which c. 315 occur in mainland Africa, c. 100 are endemic to Madagascar or the Indian Ocean islands (including the former Lomatophyllum) and c. 50 occur in Arabia. Based on genome size, the species of Aloe in the section Lomatophyllum are not closely related to the other Aloe species of the Indian Ocean Islands. Therefore, and because of the difference in fruits (berries versus capsules) some authors maintain 2 separate genera.
Another Aloe species endemic to Mauritius and with medicinal uses is Aloe purpurea Lam. (synonym: Lomatophyllum purpureum (Lam.) T.Durand & Schinz). Its leaf sap is applied to the nipples to wean children. The leaves contain the flavone isovitexin and its aglucon apigenin, the anthrone homonataloin, and the chromone aloeresin A. The leaf sap of Aloe mayottensis A.Berger , endemic to Mayotte, is applied as eye drops to cure conjunctivitis, and to nipples to wean children. A poultice of the leaves is used to treat wounds and burns.
Ecology
There is no information on the ecological requirements of Aloe lomatophylloides, but probably it occurs on open, dry localities.
Management
All Aloe species used as medicine in Mauritius are collected from the wild.
Genetic resources and breeding
Harvesting from the wild for medicinal and ornamental uses and habitat destruction have devastated the population of Aloe lomatophylloides. Whereas it was common in the 19th century, its natural range is now restricted to a single reserve on Rodrigues where just 30 plants remain. It is however widely planted in botanical gardens and is grown widely as an ornamental and is therefore not immediately threatened with extinction. All Aloe species with the exception of Aloe vera are listed by CITES.
Prospects
The Aloe species from Mauritius have not been the subject of systematic ethnobotanical research, and little has been published. Proper protection of the remaining plants seems in place and cultivation will take the pressure off wild populations.
Major references
• Groom, Q.J. & Reynolds, T., 1987. Barbaloin in Aloe species. Planta Medica 53: 345–348.
• Gurib-Fakim, A. & Brendler, T., 2004. Medicinal and aromatic plants of Indian Ocean Islands: Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles and Mascarenes. Medpharm, Stuttgart, Germany. 568 pp.
• Gurib-Fakim, A., Guého, J., Sewraj, M.D. & Dulloo, E., 1994. Plantes médicinales de l’île Rodrigues. Editions de l’Océan Indien, Rose-Hill, Mauritius. 580 pp.
• Marais, W. & Coode, M.J.E., 1978. Liliacées. In: Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (Editors). Flore des Mascareignes. Familles 177–188. The Sugar Industry Research Institute, Mauritius, l’Office de la Recherche Scientifique Outre-Mer, Paris, France & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 41 pp.
• Newton, L.E., 2001. Aloe In: Eggli, U. (Editor). Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Monocotyledons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. pp. 103–186.
Other references
• Baker, J.G., 1877., 1877. Liliaceae. In: Baker, J.G. (Editor). Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of those islands. L. Reeve & Co., London, United Kingdom. pp. 372–378.
• Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Viljoen, A. & van Wyk, B.-E., 2000. Chemistry of Aloe species. Current Organic Chemistry 4(10): 1055–1078.
• Gurib-Fakim, A., 2004. The utilization and conservation of medicinal plants in Mauritius. HerbalGram 64: 34–43.
• Pascal, O., 2002. Plantes et forêts de Mayotte. Patrimoines Naturels 53. 108 pp.
• Rowley, G.D., 1997. The berried Aloes: Aloe section Lomatophyllum. Excelsa 17: 59–62.
• Viljoen, A.M., van Wyk, B.-E. & van Heerden, F.R., 1998. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of flavonoids in Aloe (Asphodelaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 211(1–2): 31–42.
• Zonneveld, B.J.M., 2002. Genome size analysis of selected species of Aloe (Aloaceae) reveals the most primitive species and results in some new combinations. Bradleya 20: 5–12.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2006. Aloe lomatophylloides Balf.f. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.