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Aloe nuttii Baker

Protologue
Dyer, Hooker’s Icon. pl. 26: t. 2513 (1897).
Family
Asphodelaceae
Vernacular names
Kisimamleo, mshubili, msubili (Sw).
Origin and geographic distribution
Aloe nuttii occurs from DR Congo and Tanzania south to Malawi, Zambia, Angola and Mozambique.
Uses
Aloe nuttii is medicinally used in Tanzania. The leaf sap is rubbed on the skin to treat ringworm. A decoction of the roots is drunk to cure kidney problems and as an aphrodisiac. A decoction of the leaves is drunk to cure diarrhoea. In Malawi Aloe nuttii is used in veterinary medicine to prevent Newcastle disease in chickens, for deworming and to ease parturition. Mature flowers are boiled and eaten as a vegetable in Tanzania. Aloe nuttii is grown as a garden ornamental in the tropics and subtropics, and as a pot plant.
Botany
Succulent perennial herb up to 1 m tall; stem 5 cm in diameter, solitary or suckering to produce a cluster of up to 12 plants. Leaves 16–20 in a rosette, erect; stipules absent; petiole absent; blade linear, 40–50 cm × 1.5–2(–4) cm, grass-like, apex acute, margin white, hard and tough, with soft teeth, c. 1 mm long, crowded at base, almost absent towards tip, blade with scattered whitish spots towards the base on lower surface. Inflorescence a terminal cylindrical-acuminate raceme 15–25 cm × 8–9 cm, dense; peduncle erect, unbranched, 60–80 cm long; bracts ovate, 15–20 mm long, apex acute, imbricate in bud. Flowers bisexual, regular, 3-merous; pedicel 3–3.5 cm long; perianth tubular, c. 4 cm × 1 cm, lobes 6, up to 30 mm long, coral-pink to orange-red, green-tipped; stamens 6, slightly exserted; ovary superior, 3-celled, style filiform, stigma head-shaped, slightly exserted. Fruit an ovoid capsule up to 4 cm long, dehiscing loculicidally, pale brown, many-seeded.
Aloe comprises about 450 species in Africa and Arabia, of which c. 315 occur in mainland Africa, c. 100 are endemic to Madagascar or the Indian Ocean islands (including the former Lomatophyllum) and c. 50 occur in Arabia. Several other Aloe species have medicinal uses in southern Africa. A flower decoction of Aloe cooperi Baker from Mozambique and South Africa is taken by the Zulu people to ease childbirth. In Swaziland the young shoots and flowers are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. Aloe cooperi is planted as an ornamental in South Africa. In Zimbabwe leaf sap of Aloe greatheadii Schönland is used as eye drops to cure chronic conjunctivitis. An infusion or decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat gonorrhoea. An infusion of the leaves is used as a malaria prophylactic and is taken as a purgative and put in drinking water of poultry to cure diseases. In South Africa the leaf sap is applied externally to bruises, burns and skin irritations. Leaf pulp is used to treat snakebites. Flower buds are considered a delicacy. Large concentrated populations of Aloe greatheadii are an indication of overgrazing. Seedlings are planted in land reclamation trials; they need partial shade for survival. Probably Aloe ortholopha Christian & Milne-Redh., which is endemic to Zimbabwe and resembles Aloe greatheadii, has similar medicinal uses. In Namibia a leaf infusion of Aloe hereroensis Engl. is taken to treat digestive problems, chest and heart pains, urinary incontinence and venereal diseases. Both leaf sap and roots are used to treat gonorrhoea. The leaf sap is used to cure eye problems. Aloe swynnertonii Rendle is used in Malawi as fish poison, and in South Africa, it is used in a mixture with other plants to kill pests in vegetable crops. In Namibia the Topnaar people drink a decoction of the roots of Aloe dichotoma Masson to treat asthma and tuberculosis. In the past, the hollow branches were used as quivers for arrows. The Nama people use the porous inner fibre of the trunk as cooling material. Sheep eat the dry leaves. Aloe dichotoma is planted as an ornamental in South Africa.
Ecology
Aloe nuttii occurs in moist grassland (‘dambos’) and often on rocky slopes, at 1600–2650 m altitude.
Management
Aloe nuttii is collected from the wild and leaves can be harvested throughout the year. Flowers can be collected at the end of the rainy season.
Genetic resources and breeding
Aloe nuttii is not uncommon and probably not in danger of genetic erosion. However, all Aloe species except Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. are listed by CITES, and trade in plants and plant parts is restricted.
Prospects
Aloe nuttii is not suitable for large scale exploitation or domestication because of the small plant size and narrow leaves; it will therefore remain of local importance only.
Major references
• Carter, S., 2001. Aloaceae. In: Pope, G.V. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 12, part 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 48–98.
• Gelfand, M., Mavi, S., Drummond, R.B. & Ndemera, B., 1985. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe: his principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Mambo Press, Gweru, Zimbabwe. 411 pp.
• Newton, L.E., 2001. Aloe In: Eggli, U. (Editor). Illustrated handbook of succulent plants: Monocotyledons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. pp. 103–186.
• Ruffo, C.K., Birnie, A. & Tengnäs, B., 2002. Edible wild plants of Tanzania. Technical Handbook No 27. Regional Land Management Unit/ SIDA, Nairobi, Kenya. 766 pp.
• van Wyk, B.E., van Oudtshoorn, B. & Gericke, N., 1997. Medicinal plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria, South Africa. 304 pp.
Other references
• Dlamini, B., 1981. Swaziland Flora: their local names and uses. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Mbabane, Swaziland. 72 pp.
• Glen, H.F. & Hardy, D.S., 2000. Aloaceae: Aloe. In: Germishuizen, G. (Editor). Flora of southern Africa. Volume 5, part 1, fascicle 1: first part. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. 167 pp.
• Kambewa, B.M.D, Mfitilodze, M.W., Hüttner, K., Wollny, C.B.A. & Phoya, R.K.D., 1999. The use of indigenous veterinary remedies in Malawi. In: Mathias, E., Rangnekar, D.V. & McCorkle, C.M. (Editors). Ethnoveterinary medicine: alternatives for livestock development. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Pune, India, on November 4–6, 1997. Volume 1: Selected Papers. BAIF Development Research Foundation, Pune, India. pp. 60–66.
• Lukwa, N., Makaza, N., Molgaard, P. & Furu, P., 2001. Perceptions about malaria transmission and control using anti-malaria plants in Mola, Kariba, Zimbabwe. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine 5: 4–7.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• SEPASAL, 2005. Aloe dichotoma. [Internet] Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. http://www.kew.org/ ceb/sepasal/. Accessed November 2005.
• Smith, G.F & de Correia, R.I., 1992. Establishment of Aloe greatheadii var. Davyana from seed for use in reclamation trials. Landscape and Urban Planning 23(1): 47–54.
• Tredgold, M.H., 1986. Food plants of Zimbabwe. Mambo Press, Gweru, Zimbabwe. 153 pp.
• Van Damme, P. & Van den Eynden, V., 2000. Succulent and xerophytic plants used by the Topnaar of Namibia. Haseltonia 7: 53–62.
• von Koenen, E., 2001. Medicinal, poisonous and edible plants in Namibia. Klaus Hess Verlag, Göttingen, Germany. 336 pp.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2006. Aloe nuttii Baker. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.