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Androsiphonia adenostegia Stapf

Protologue
Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 101 (1905).
Family
Passifloraceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Androsiphonia adenostegia occurs in West Africa from Sierra Leone east to Ghana.
Uses
In Liberia and Ghana the leaves are mixed with palm oil and applied to the head to kill lice. The leaves are mixed with lime juice (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. & Panzer) Swingle) and used to treat crab louse. In Liberia twigs are used as chewsticks.
Properties
Androsiphonia adenostegia contains the cyanogenic glycosides tetraphyllin B, volkenin and their possible biosynthetic precursor the nonprotein amino acid L-cyclopentenylglycine, a potent inhibitor of valine and isoleucine utilization in bacteria. Androsiphonia adenostegia also contains saponin derivates.
Botany
Shrub or small tree up to 6 m tall. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent; petiole 8–25 mm long; blade oblong to elliptical, 12–25 cm × 4–7 cm, base with two large black glands, one at each side of the midrib, apex acuminate to acute, margin toothed, papery, slightly hairy when young, later glabrous. Inflorescence a terminal panicle, sometimes also axillary, few- to many-flowered; bracts leafy, glandular. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous, c. 2.5 cm in diameter; sepals fused at base, ovate to elliptical, hairy; petals inserted at the base of the sepals, similar to the sepals, greyish green; corona emerging from the base of the calyx, deeply divided, segments broadly linear; stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, forming an ovoid tube up to 3 mm long, filaments c. 5 mm long, anthers oblong; ovary superior, ellipsoid, c. 1 mm long, 1-celled, styles 3, slender, c. 6 mm long, stigmas head-shaped. Fruit a leathery, globose berry 2–3 cm long, apex acuminate, yellow to orange when ripe, several-seeded. Seeds with pitted wall, surrounded by pulpy aril.
Androsiphonia comprises a single species.
Ecology
Androsiphonia adenostegia occurs in dense evergreen humid forest.
Genetic resources and breeding
As Androsiphonia adenostegia only occurs in evergreen forest, it might be threatened by genetic erosion because of habitat loss, although it does not seem to be endangered yet.
Prospects
In view of the biological importance of the active substances found in Androsiphonia adenostegia, further research into the properties may prove worthwhile, although these substances also occur in several better-known Passiflora spp.
Major references
• Abbiw, D.K., 1990. Useful plants of Ghana: West African uses of wild and cultivated plants. Intermediate Technology Publications, London and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 337 pp.
• Andersen, L., Nielsen, B. & Jaroszewski, J.W., 2000. Synthesis of epimers of L-cyclopentenylglycine using enzymatic resolution. Chirality 12(9): 665–669.
• Bernhard, A., 1999. Flower structure, development, and systematics in Passifloraceae and in Abatia (Flacourtiaceae). International Journal of Plant Science 160(1): 135–150.
• Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Clausen, V., Wellendorph, P., Ekpe, P. & Jaroszewski, J.W., 2001. Tetraphyllin B, volkenin and cyclopentenylglycine in Androsiphonia adenostegia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 29(3): 317–319.
Other references
• Hedberg, I., 1979. Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant species and vegetation in Africa. In Hedberg, I. (Editor). Systematic botany, plant utilization and biosphere conservation. Almquist & Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 83–104.
• Keay, R.W.J., 1954. Passifloraceae. In: Keay, R.W.J. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1, part 1. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 199–203.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
Author(s)
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
de Ruijter, A., 2007. Androsiphonia adenostegia Stapf. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.