Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes mιdicinales 1
Fl. trop. Afr. 2: 271 (1871).
Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae)
Longtail cassia, long-pod cassia, sjambok pod (En). Mbaraka, mkakatika (Sw).
Origin and geographic distribution
Cassia abbreviata is indigenous from Gabon east to Somalia and throughout southern Africa to South Africa. It has been introduced into Mauritius.
Cassia abbreviata has been used for many ailments. The leaves are smoked as a treatment for haematuria, whereas the smoke of smouldering twigs is inhaled to cure headache. A root infusion is kept in the mouth, or roots are chewed and swallowed to relieve toothache. A root decoction or the dried powdered roots in water are drunk to treat gastrointestinal disorders, stomach-ache, bilharzia, venereal diseases, pneumonia, uterus complaints, heavy menstruation, snakebites, and as a purgative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, abortifacient and vermifuge. Malaria (including blackwater fever) is also treated with extracts from the roots. A water extract of the roots is used as an eyewash to cure ophthalmia. The powdered stem bark is applied to abscesses and added to food to cure diarrhoea. A decoction of the stem bark is used as a purgative and to cure malaria and diarrhoea. The seed is used as a tonic.
The wood is used to make furniture, pestles and joinery. It is termite resistant and therefore the poles are preferred for house construction. The wood is also a useful source of charcoal and firewood Cassia abbreviata is important in soil conservation and as a shade tree. The flowers are highly appreciated as bee forage. The stem bark is used for tanning and dyeing.
Production and international trade
A decoction of Cassia abbreviata roots was formerly produced commercially and sold in southern Africa as a cure for blackwater fever and schistosomiasis. Trade of roots and bark for local use is still important in East and south-eastern Africa. Traditional healers nowadays rely on commercial traders for their supply, whereas in the past they harvested the required material themselves. High demand and destructive harvesting have led to steep price increases, at least in Malawi.
From the root bark, stem bark, leaves and flowers, a number of anthraquinones, triterpenoids, flavanol derivatives and organic acids have been isolated. Extracts of both roots and leaves showed high antiplasmodial activity in vitro. Injection of crude extract of the stem bark in rats caused a drop in blood pressure which was dose-dependent. Tests on pregnant mice and rats showed no abortifacient activity of stem bark extract at doses which are not toxic to the animals. Methanol, acetone and water extracts of the stem bark showed significant inhibition against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Tests of a root extract showed only modest levels of cytotoxicity.
The wood is heavy and dark brown. The heartwood has a coarse texture and shows pale blotches.
Adulterations and substitutes
As a purgative Cassia abbreviata is often replaced by other Cassia, Senna and Aloe species.
Shrub or small tree up to 10(15) m tall, deciduous; young twigs glabrous or hairy. Leaves arranged spirally, paripinnately compound with 512 pairs of leaflets; stipules linear, c. 1.5 mm long, caducous; leaflets ovate-elliptical to oblong-elliptical, 36 cm Χ 13 cm, base rounded to obtuse, apex obtuse to subacute. Inflorescence a terminal, lax raceme, 0.59 cm long, many-flowered; bracts persistent during flowering. Flowers bisexual, slightly zygomorphic, 5-merous, fragrant; sepals obtuse; petals oblanceolate to obovate, 1535 mm Χ 718 mm, yellow; stamens 10, 3 with filaments c. 3 cm long, 4 shorter, 3 rudimentary; ovary superior, stipitate, style very short, stigma small. Fruit a pendulous cylindrical pod 3090 cm Χ 1.52.5 cm, transversely partitioned, dehiscent by 2 valves, woody, black, many-seeded with seeds embedded in pulp. Seeds ellipsoid, 912 mm long, brown to black. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Other botanical information
Until the early 1980s, Cassia was considered a very large genus of about 550 species, but was then split into 3 genera: Cassia s.s. with about 30 species, Chamaecrista and Senna. In Cassia abbreviata 3 subspecies are distinguished: subsp. abbreviata, subsp. beareana (Holmes) Brenan and subsp. kassneri (Baker f.) Brenan. They differ morphologically and in ecological requirements. Cassia abbreviata hybridizes with Cassia burttii Baker f., which is found in Tanzania and Mozambique. Cassia afrofistula Brenan has been erroneously considered synonymous with Cassia abbreviata; it is native to Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Madagascar. Both Cassia burttii and Cassia afrofistula have similar medicinal uses in East Africa as Cassia abbreviata. It is probable that these 3 species have been confused.
Growth and development
Cassia abbreviata is moderately fast growing. It has potential for intercropping as it roots deeply and probably causes only limited competition with crops for nutrients and water. Flowering occurs on the bare tree at the end of the dry season and fruits are ripe about 7 months later. Cassia abbreviata does not form root nodules but has a high N-content in its leaves. It has been suggested that it may fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizas.
Cassia abbreviata commonly occurs in Acacia - Commiphora bushland and also in woodland and wooded grassland. It is usually found on termite mounds and clayey soils. Mature trees are fire resistant, but seedlings are vulnerable. It is drought tolerant and it can withstand moderate frost.
Propagation and planting
Cassia abbreviata is propagated by seed or wildlings. Soaking in hot water improves seed germination. Seeds germinate 410 days after sowing. They are sown in a sand-compost mixture (1:1) and should be kept warm and moist. It is better not to use seeding trays, but to sow seed directly into polythene bags or into the ground. Before transplanting, 12 weeks after sowing, root trimming is necessary because the plants develop a long taproot early.
Pollarding, coppicing, trimming and pruning are recommended management strategies for Cassia abbreviata. Over-watering results in poor flowering.
Diseases and pests
The leaves of Cassia abbreviata are attacked by powdery mildew caused by Phyllactinia cassiae.
Removal of the bark of Cassia abbreviata should be done in small pieces and not by ring barking, as is commonly done. Harvesting the roots is even more destructive.
Handling after harvest
The harvested bark is dried in the shade for future use.
In Malawi and Zambia excessive cutting of the bark of Cassia abbreviata for medicinal use has killed many trees near homesteads. Populations in Kenya and Tanzania are also under severe pressure. Measures to protect natural stands are long overdue.
In view of the many and widespread medicinal uses of Cassia abbreviata, the amount of scientific research on the species is disappointing. The enormous demand for roots and bark mean that the wild populations are being depleted at a high rate. Protection measures and domestication are required urgently.
Brenan, J.P.M., 1967. Leguminosae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Milne-Redhead, E. & Polhill, R.M. (Editors). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 230 pp.
Coates Palgrave, K., 1983. Trees of southern Africa. 2nd Edition. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa. 959 pp.
Eriksen, S., Owuor, B., Nyukuri, E. & Orindi, V., 2005. Vulnerability to climate stress: local and regional perspectives. Proceedings of 2 workshops January 2728, 2005, World Agroforestry Centre, Gigiri, Nairobi & February 14, 2005, KEFRI Research Centre, Kitui. CICERO Report 2006: 01. Oslo, Norway. 107 pp.
Kayambazinthu, D., Barany, M., Mumba, R. & Holding-Anyonge, C., 2006. Miombo woodlands and HIV/AIDS interactions: Malawi Country Report. Forestry Policy and Institutions Working Paper 6. FAO, Rome, Italy. 126 pp.
Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd Edition. Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. 401 pp.
Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
Otsyina, R. & Dery, B.B., 2001. The 10 priority medicinal trees of Shinyanga, Tanzania. Agroforestry Today 12(1): 58.
Storrs, A.E.G., 1979. Know your trees: some of the common trees found in Zambia. Forest Department, Ndola, Zambia. 380 pp.
World Agroforestry Centre, undated. Agroforestree Database. [Internet] World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ Sites/TreeDBS/ aft.asp. Accessed July 2006
Augustino, S. & Gillah, P.R., 2005. Medicinal plants in urban districts of Tanzania: plants, gender roles and sustainable use. International Forestry Review 7(1): 4458.
Beentje, H.J., 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya. 722 pp.
Chhabra, S.C., Mahunnah, R.L.A. & Mshiu, E.N., 1987. Plants used in traditional medicine in eastern Tanzania. 1. Pteridophytes and Angiosperms (Acanthaceae to Canellaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 21: 253277.
Connelly, M.P.E., Fabiano, E., Patel, I.H., Kinyanjui, S.M., Mberu, E.K. & Watkins, W.M., 1996. Antimalarial activity in crude extracts of Malawian medicinal plants. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90(6): 597602.
Gelfand, M., Mavi, S., Drummond, R.B. & Ndemera, B., 1985. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe: his principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Mambo Press, Gweru, Zimbabwe. 411 pp.
Gessler, M.C., Msuya, D.E., Nkunya, M.H.H., Mwasumbi, L.B., Schδr, A., Heinrich, M. & Tanner, M., 1995. Traditional healers in Tanzania: the treatment of malaria with plant remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 48: 131144.
Gorter, G.J.M.A. & Eicker, A., 1987. Additional first records of perfect stages of some powdery mildew fungi in South Africa, including a new species. South African Journal of Botany 53(1): 9397.
Hogberg, P. & Alexander, I.J., 1995. Roles of root symbioses in African woodland and forest: evidence from 15N abundance and foliar analysis. Journal of Ecology 83(2): 217224.
Kambizi, L. & Afolayan, A.J., 2001. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (njovhera) in Guruve District, Zimbabwe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 59.
Kamuhabwa, A., Nshimo, C. & de Witte, P., 2000. Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70: 143149.
Malan, E., Swinny, E., Ferreira, D. & Steynberg. P., 1996. The structure and synthesis of proguibourtinidins from Cassia abbreviata. Phytochemistry 41(4): 12091213.
Mψlgaard, P., Nielsen, S.B., Rasmussen, D.E., Drummond, R.B., Makaza, N. & Andreassen, J., 2001. Anthelmintic screening of Zimbabwean plants traditionally used against schistosomiasis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74: 257264.
Mutasa, S.L. & Kahn, M.R., 1995. Phytochemical investigations on Cassia abbreviata. Fitoterapia 66(2): 184.
Ndubani, P. & Hφjer, B., 1999. Traditional healers and the treatment of sexually transmitted illnesses in rural Zambia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67: 1525.
Ndubani, P., Kelly, P., Farthing, M.J.G. & Wallman, S., 1998. Local understandings of adult diarrhoeal disease and its treatment in an area of high HIV-seroprevalence in Zambia. Tropical Medicine & International Health 3(10): 783787.
Parry, O. & Matambo, C., 1992. Some pharmacological actions of aloe extracts and Cassia abbreviata on rats and mice. Central African Journal of Medicine 38(10): 409414.
Parry, O., Mutangadura, N. & Duri, Z.J., 1992. The effects of Cassia abbreviata on rat blood pressure. Central African Journal of Medicine 38(11): 435438.
Steenkamp, V., 2003. Traditional herbal remedies used by South African women for gynaecological complaints. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86: 97108.
van Wyk, B.E. & Gericke, N., 2000. Peoples plants: a guide to useful plants of southern Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria, South Africa. 351 pp.
von Koenen, E., 2001. Medicinal, poisonous and edible plants in Namibia. Klaus Hess Verlag, Gφttingen, Germany. 336 pp.
Sources of illustration
Ross, J.H., 1977. Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Ross, J.H. (Editor). Flora of southern Africa. Volume 16, part 2. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Pretoria, South Africa. 142 pp.
Serrato Valenti, G., 1971. Adumbratio florae Aethiopicae 22. Caesalpiniaceae - gen. Cassia. Webbia 26(1): 199.
Correct citation of this article:
Kawanga, V., 2007. Cassia abbreviata Oliv. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes mιdicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
1, leafy branch; 2, inflorescence; 3, fruit.
Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin
flowering tree habit