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Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich.

Protologue
Fl. Seneg. tent. 1: 11 (1831).
Family
Menispermaceae
Synonyms
Cissampelos pareira L. var. mucronata (A.Rich.) Engl. (1899).
Vernacular names
Orelha de rato (Po). Kishiki cha buga (Sw).
Origin and geographic distribution
Cissampelos mucronata is distributed throughout tropical Africa, except the most humid areas, from Senegal east to Ethiopia and south to South Africa.
Uses
Cissampelos mucronata, Cissampelos owariensis P.Beauv. ex DC. and Cissampelos pareira L. have often been confused; as they are also similarly used, it is often impossible to correlate uses unambiguously with a particular species. Cissampelos mucronata has many medicinal uses, and throughout Africa people take an infusion of the bitter rhizome, and sometimes of leaves and stems, or fruit juice, to cure gastro-intestinal complaints such as diarrhoea, dysentery, colic, intestinal worms and digestive complaints, and also urogenital problems such as menstrual problems, venereal diseases, infertility, azoospermia, to induce contraction of the uterus to start labour or abortion and to expel the placenta. In eastern DR Congo a leaf decoction is taken as a vermifuge against tapeworm.
In Senegal the rhizome enters into preparations to treat catarrh, whereas in Togo the rhizome is chewed to treat sore throat, cough and lung problems. In decoction the rhizome is given against oedema. In Tanzania and Madagascar a rhizome decoction is taken to diminish fever caused by malaria or jaundice. Rhizome sap is used as ear drops to treat earache. Bushmen of the Kalahari take a warm rhizome decoction to treat coughs and for general wellness. In the Okavango delta in Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe a rhizome decoction is drunk to treat headache, neck pain and back pain. In Namibia the Damara people apply the powdered rhizome to open wounds for quick healing. In Zimbabwe rhizomes are used to treat bilharzia.
Throughout West Africa and in Uganda, fresh leaves, heated leaves or pulped leaves are applied to wounds, ulcers, conjunctivitis and syphilis sores, and a poultice of leaves mixed with natron is applied to swellings, ulcers and Guinea worm sores. In Ghana leaf pulp is taken internally or applied to the affected area as an antidote for snake venom. In Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso fresh leaf pulp is applied to relieve severe headache and is eaten mixed with clay to stop stomatitis. The vapour of a leaf decoction is inhaled to induce vomiting.
In southern Senegal an infusion of leafy stems is used as emmenagogue. In Togo the whole plant is used in preparations to treat intercostal pain. In Nigeria ash from the plant enters into a medicine against arthritis, which is rubbed into scarifications. In DR Congo and eastern Tanzania the pounded plant is applied to snakebites. In Rwanda the plant is used to treat diseases affecting the spine. In Benin, Uganda and other parts of Africa the roots are used in medical rituals to treat mental problems such as psychoses.
In Nigeria the rhizome is sometimes used in the preparation of arrow poison. In Kenya crushed rhizomes are applied to the skin of goats to remove insect parasites.
The stems of Cissampelos mucronata are commonly used for tying and binding and in wickerwork; in DR Congo stems are used to make fishing lines.
Production and international trade
Cissampelos mucronata is mainly traded in local markets. It may enter wider markets by the name ‘pareira brava’. True ‘pareira brava’ however is made from the South American Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pav.; in some African countries it is permitted to sell Cissampelos pareira under this name, and confusion with Cissampelos mucronata may occur.
Properties
All plant parts are rich in alkaloids, although the rhizomes contain most. The aporphine alkaloid dicentrine is the main alkaloid isolated from all plant parts. The rhizome also contains a high concentration of the bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids cissacapine, cycleanine and d-isochondrodendrine; the first 2 alkaloids occur in small amounts in the stem, as well as the aporphine alkaloid lauroscholtzine. The leaves contain the proaporphine alkaloid pronuciferine, the benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid reticuline and the morphinane alkaloid salutaridine. A methanolic rhizome extract contained several bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including tubocurine, 12-O-methylcurine, isoliensinine and cissampentine.
Methanolic extracts from the dried rhizome have shown significant antiprotozoal activity against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The dichloromethane extract showed less activity. The methanolic extract also inhibited the enzyme tyrosine kinase. Alkaloids isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the rhizome have shown sedative effects in tests with mice. The ethanol extract has also shown uterine relaxant activities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Methanolic leaf extracts of the plant had a positive effect against indomethacin-induced stomach ulcers in rats.
Description
Dioecious liana, with rhizome; older stems with longitudinal ridges, dark brown, branchlets short-hairy. Leaves arranged spirally, simple; stipules absent; petiole (1–)2–4.5(–8) cm long, inserted 0–3 mm above the base of the blade; blade ovate to heart-shaped, 4–12(–15) cm × 4–13(–14.5) cm, base cordate, apex rounded to acute, with mucro, margin entire or wavy, papery, short-hairy on both sides, later glabrescent, palmately veined with 5–7 main veins. Inflorescence an axillary, umbel-like cyme, solitary or clustered; male inflorescence either in clusters or arranged in a false raceme up to 15(–30) cm long, female inflorescence arranged in a false raceme 5–16(–18) cm long; peduncle up to 1 cm long; bracts 10–12 mm long, mucronate. Flowers unisexual, with reddish brown or black spots; pedicel up to 2 mm long; male flowers with 4–5(–7) ovate to elliptical sepals, free or fused at base, 1–1.5 mm × 0.5–1 mm, hairy outside, petals 4–5, fused at base, 1–1.5 mm long, spreading after flowering, stamens 2–5, filaments fused, up to 1.5 mm long; female flowers with 1(–2) obovate sepals up to 1.5(–2) mm long, short-hairy, petals 1(–2), broadly ovate, c. 1 mm × 1.5 mm, glabrous, ovary superior, c. 1 mm long, almost glabrous, 1-celled, stigma 3–5-lobed. Fruit a compressed obovoid drupe 4–7 mm × 3–5(–8) mm, curved, orange-red or yellow when ripe, short-hairy, stone woody with a dorsal ridge, sides with warty ribs, 1-seeded. Seed with sparse endosperm.
Other botanical information
Cissampelos comprises about 20 species, 7 in tropical America and 13 in tropical Africa. Cissampelos pareira is the only species with a pantropical distribution.
Growth and development
In South Africa Cissampelos mucronata can be found flowering almost throughout the year.
Ecology
Cissampelos mucronata occurs in deciduous bushland, often on termite hills and rock outcrops, in riverine forests and swamps, up to 1800 m altitude. It often persists in cultivated land.
Propagation and planting
Cissampelos mucronata is only propagated by seed.
Management
Cissampelos mucronata is commonly planted in home gardens as a medicinal plant but details of management and yield are not known.
Genetic resources
Because Cissampelos mucronata is very widespread in Africa and occurs in a variety of habitats, it seems not to be in danger of genetic erosion. In view of its medicinal importance and wide distribution, the establishment of a representative germplasm collection is recommended.
Prospects
Cissampelos mucronata is an important and well-documented medicinal plant throughout Africa, but with little chemical and pharmacological data available to support its medicinal uses. Further study of the pharmacological properties of the various plant parts and of their chemical components is urgently needed.
Major references
• Baerts, M. & Lehmann, J., 2006. Cissampelos mucronata. [Internet]. Prelude Medicinal Plants Database. Metafro-Infosys, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium http://www.metafro.be/prelude. Accessed November 2007.
• de Wet, H. & van Wyk, B.E., 2008. An ethnobotanical survey of southern African Menispermaceae. South African Journal of Botany 74(1): 2–9.
• Keay, R.W.J. & Troupin, G., 1954. Menispermaceae. In: Keay, R.W.J. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1, part 1. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 66–77.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 1996. African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs. Chapman & Hall, London, United Kingdom. 941 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Nwafor, S.V. & Akah, P.A., 2003. Effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. against indomethacin induced ulcer in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41: 181–183.
• Nwafor, S.V., Akah, P.A., Okoli, C.O., Ndu, O.O. & Ichu, E.O., 2002. Uterine relaxant property of the ethanolic extract of Cissampelos mucronata. Journal of Natural Remedies 2(1): 59–65.
• Rhodes, D.G., 1975. A revision of the genus Cissampelos. Phytologia 30: 415–484.
• Troupin, G., 1956. Menispermaceae. In: Turrill, W.B. & Milne-Redhead, E. (Editors). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 32 pp.
• Tshibangu, J.N., Wright, A.D. & König, G.M., 2003. HPLC isolation of the anti-plasmodially active bisbenzylisoquinone alkaloids present in roots of Cissampelos mucronata. Phytochemical Analysis 14: 13–22.
Other references
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Ahiyi, M.R.A., Aké Assi, L., Dramane, K., Elewude, J.A., Fadoju, S.U., Gbile, Z.O., Goudote, E., Johnson, C.L.A., Keita, A., Morakinyo, O., Ojewole, J.A.O., Olatunji, A.O. & Sofowora, E.A., 1991. Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia: contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in western Nigeria. OUA/ST & RC, Lagos, Nigeria. 420 pp.
• Akah, P.A., Nwafor, S.V., Okoli, C.O. & Egbogha, C.U., 2002. Evaluation of the sedative properties of the ethanolic root extract of Cissampelos mucronata. Bollettino chimico-farmaceutico 141: 243–246.
• Bost, R., 1961. Pharmacopée malgache. Mémoire de l’Institut scientifique de Madagascar, série B, Tome 10, Fascicule 2: 159–234.
• de Wet, H., Tilney, P.M. & Van Wyk, B.E., 2001. Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Cissampelos in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 68: 181–190.
• Gessler, M.C., Nkunya, M.H.H., Mwasumbi, L.B., Heinrich, M. & Tanner, M., 1994. Screening Tanzanian medicinal plants for antimalarial activity. Acta Tropica 56: 65–77.
• Hamill, F.A., Apio, S., Mubiru, N.K., Mosango, M., Bukenya-Ziraba, R., Maganyi, O.W. & Soejarto, D.D., 2000. Traditional herbal drugs of southern Uganda, 1. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70: 281–300.
• le Grand, A. & Wondergem, P.A., 1987. Les phytothérapies anti-infectueuses de la forêt-savane, Sénégal (Afrique occidentale). 1. un inventaire. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 21: 109–125.
• Minja, M.M.J., 1994. Medicinal plants used in promotion of animal health in Tanzania. Revue Scientifique et Technique 13(3): 905–925.
• Tshibangu, J.N., Chifundera, K., Kaminsky, R., Wright, A.D. & König, G.M., 2002. Screening of African medicinal plants for antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80: 25–35.
• Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G., 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd Edition. E. and S. Livingstone, London, United Kingdom. 1457 pp.
Sources of illustration
• Berhaut, J., 1979. Flore illustrée du Sénégal. Dicotylédones. Volume 6. Linacées à Nymphéacées. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du Développement Rural et de l’Hydraulique, Direction des Eaux et Forêts, Dakar, Senegal. 636 pp.
Author(s)
M. Muzila
Herbarium (UCBG), Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB00704, Gaborone, Botswana


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
Photo editor
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Muzila, M., 2008. Cissampelos mucronata A.Rich. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, part of stem with male inflorescence; 2, part of stem with female inflorescence and infructescence.
Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin



leafy stem with young infructescences
obtained from
P. Ekpe NSBP


leafy stem with male inflorescences
obtained from
P. Ekpe NSBP


part of male inflorescence
obtained from
P. Ekpe NSBP


male inflorescence
obtained from
B. Wursten


infructescences
obtained from
B. Wursten