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Croton mauritianus Lam.

Protologue
Encycl. 2: 205 (1786).
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Vernacular names
Ti bois de senteur (Fr).
Origin and geographic distribution
Croton mauritianus is endemic to Réunion, and possibly also occurs on Mauritius.
Uses
A decoction of the chopped leaves is taken to treat fever and to improve the memory.
Properties
The aerial parts tested positive for alkaloids. A methanol extract of the leaves and of the stem had considerable free radical scavenging activity.
Botany
Monoecious shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall; stem up to 20 cm in diameter; young twigs with short stellate hairs. Leaves in whorls, simple, strongly scented; stipules small; petiole 2–5 cm long; blade ovate, 6–15 cm × 3–9 cm, base cordate, with 2 small, sessile glands, apex acute, margins variously toothed, soft-hairy on both sides. Inflorescence a terminal raceme 3–12 cm long, with up to 25 male flowers at end and 2–3 female flowers at base. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous, white; male flowers with pedicel up to 15 mm long, sepals triangular, 2–3 mm long, with stellate hairs, petals oblong-obovate, c. 5 mm long, stamens 45–60, free, 4–5 mm long; female flowers with pedicel 18–20 mm long, sepals fused to half their length, c. 5 mm long, petals oblong-obovate, 3–6 mm × 1–2 mm, recurved between the sepals, with long hairs on margins, staminodes c. 3 mm long if present, ovary superior, rounded, 3-lobed, silky hairy, 3-celled, styles 3, several times 2-fid. Fruit an oblong to ovoid, 3-lobed capsule 6–8 mm long, with stellate hairs, 3-seeded. Seeds ovoid, pale brown to black.
Croton comprises about 1200 species and occurs throughout the warmer regions of the world. It is best represented in the Americas; in continental Africa about 65 species occur and in Madagascar about 125. Réunion has 1 endemic species and Mauritius about 4.
Ecology
Croton mauritianus occurs in semi-dry forest and steep hill sides at low altitudes.
Management
Croton mauritianus can be propagated by stem cuttings.
Genetic resources and breeding
Croton mauritianus is commonly used as an ingredient of medicinal preparations, and is therefore becoming rare in the wild. It has a protected status in Réunion.
Prospects
Croton mauritianus has several interesting medicinal uses, which are partly confirmed by pharmacological tests. More research is warranted to evaluate the real potential of the species. More efforts are needed to domesticate Croton mauritianus and protect it from extinction.
Major references
• Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A., 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (with Pandaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 1620 pp.
• Lavergne, R., 2001. Le grand livre des tisaneurs et plantes médicinales indigènes de la Réunion. Editions Orphie, Chevagny sur Guye, France. 522 pp.
• Poullain, C., 2004. Contribution à l’étude des plantes endémiques et indigènes de la Réunion, recherche d’activités biologiques et de principes actifs dans 75 plantes. Thèse de Doctorat du 3ème cycle, option Chimie. Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de La Réunion, Réunion. 216 + 138 pp.
• Poullain, C., Girard-Valenciennes, E. & Smadja, J., 2004. Plants from Reunion island: evaluation of their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 95: 19–26.
Other references
• Coode, M.J.E., 1982. Euphorbiacées. In: Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (Editors). Flore des Mascareignes. Familles 153–160. The Sugar Industry Research Institute, Mauritius, l’Office de la Recherche Scientifique Outre-Mer, Paris, France & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 117 pp.
• Mauremootoo, J.R. (Editor), 2003. Proceedings of the regional workshop on invasive alien species and terrestrial ecosystem rehabilitation for western Indian Ocean island states - sharing experience, identifying priorities and defining joint action. Indian Ocean Commission Regional Environment Programme, 13–17 October 2003, Seychelles. 207 pp.
Author(s)
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Schmelzer, G.H., 2007. Croton mauritianus Lam. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.