PROTA homepage Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1
Record display


Efulensia clematoides C.H.Wright

Protologue
Dyer, Icon. pl. 26: t. 2518 (1897).
Family
Passifloraceae
Chromosome number
2n = 22
Synonyms
Deidamia clematoides (C.H.Wright) Harms (1897).
Origin and geographic distribution
Efulensia clematoides occurs from southern Nigeria to DR Congo.
Uses
In DR Congo a concentrated root decoction of Efulensia clematoides is used to produce arrow poison. The leaves are eaten to treat liver problems and enlargement of the spleen.
Properties
Some saponins are present in the bark and roots of Efulensia clematoides. Hydrocyanic acid is abundant in the roots and traces of it occur in the bark. Efulensia clematoides contains the cyanohydrin glycosides barterin (tetraphyllin B) and deidaclin.
Botany
Liana up to 30 m long; stem up to 5 cm in diameter, axillary tendrils present or not. Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate; stipules linear, 1.5–5 mm long; petiole 3.5–8.5 cm long, with a pair of glands at base; petiolules 1–3 mm long, distinctly articulate; leaflets obovate to elliptical, 3.5–12 cm × 2.5–7.5 cm, base cuneate to obtuse, apex acuminate or obtuse and mucronate, glossy at both sides, glaucous beneath. Inflorescence a terminal cyme, 10–many-flowered, often with a tendril in place of the terminal flower; peduncle 3–20 cm long. Flowers bisexual or functionally unisexual, regular, 5-merous, glabrous, whitish to greenish; pedicel 10–20 mm long; hypanthium shallowly cup-shaped or nearly flat, c. 5 mm wide; sepals ovate, 6–10 mm long, apex obtuse to acute; petals oblong, 5–8 mm long, apex acute; corona white, with tube 1–1.5 mm high and threads 3–7 mm long; stamens fused at base for 1–1.5 mm, sometimes with 5 small teeth alternating with the 6–10 mm long filaments; ovary superior, ellipsoid, 2–3 mm long, with stipe up to 1 mm long, 1-celled, styles 3, almost free to over halfway fused, 2–3 mm long, stigmas globose. Fruit a globular to flattened capsule c. 1.5 cm × 2.5 cm, with (2–)3(–4) longitudinal grooves, yellow to orange, 4–12-seeded. Seeds 7.5–9.5 mm long, with roughly pitted black testa.
Efulensia comprises 2 species, both occurring in tropical Africa.
Ecology
Efulensia clematoides occurs in rainforest on dry and swampy localities, often in secondary forest and forest margins, from sea-level up to 900 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Efulensia clematoides is widely distributed and not threatened with genetic erosion.
Prospects
In view of the medicinal use on record, research into the properties of Efulensia clematoides may prove worthwhile. However, the species is likely to remain of limited importance.
Major references
• Bouquet, A. & Debray, M., 1974. Plantes médicinales de la Côte d’Ivoire. Travaux et Documents No 32. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 231 pp.
• Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Olafsdottir, E.S., Andersen, J.V. & Jaroszewski, J.W., 1989. Cyanohydrin glycosides of Passifloraceae. Phytochemistry 28(1): 127–132.
• Robyns, A., 1995. Passifloraceae. In: Bamps, P. (Editor). Flore d’Afrique centrale. Spermatophytes. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium. 75 pp.
Other references
• de Wilde, W.J.J.O., 1974. Account of Efulensia (Passifloraceae). Blumea 22(1): 31–35.
• Long Jr, L., Clapp, R.C. & Ettlinger, M.G., 1970. Deidaclin: natural glucoside of cyclopentenone cyanohydrin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 92(21): 6378–6379.
• Paris, M., Bouquet, A. & Paris, R.R., 1969. Biochimie végétale. Sur le bartérioside, nouvel hétéroside cyanogénétique des écorces de racine du Barteria fistulosa Mast. Comptes rendus des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Série D, Sciences naturelles 268(23): 2804–2806.
• Yamada, T., 1999. A report of the ethnobotany of the Nyindu in the eastern part of the former Zaire. African Study Monographs 20(1): 1–72.
Author(s)
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
de Ruijter, A., 2007. Efulensia clematoides C.H.Wright. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.