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Efulensia montana W.J.De Wilde

Protologue
Blumea 22: 34 (1974).
Family
Passifloraceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Efulensia montana occurs in DR Congo and Uganda.
Uses
The Nyindu people in DR Congo use the vines as lashings in house construction and for making animal traps and similar products. The vines are also split and used for making flat baskets.
Botany
Robust, glabrous liana up to 20 m long, stem c. 0.5 cm in diameter. Tendrils simple, 8–20(–25) cm long, sometimes absent. Leaves 5-foliolate, palmate to imparipinnate; petiole (1.5–)2–8 cm long, bearing 2 glands 0.5–2.5 cm above the base; the lowest pair of leaflets inserted at a distance of up to 3 mm from top leaflets; petiolules 0.5–1.5 cm long; leaflets elliptical to oblong, (1.5–)2.5–10 cm Χ (0.5–)1–3.5 cm, base subobtuse to acute, apex mostly acute and acuminate, rarely subobtuse, margin entire, papery, bearing up to 6 glands up to 0.5 mm in diameter at each side on the margin close to the base. Inflorescence axillary, cymose, 2–6(–8)-flowered, often terminating in a tendril; peduncle 5–13 cm long; bracts minute. Flowers bisexual or functionally male, 5-merous, greenish or whitish; petiole very short; stipe 7–25 mm long; sepals free, oblong-ovate, 7–10 mm Χ 2.5–3 mm, obtuse; petals free, oblong to oblong-ovate, 7–9 mm Χ 2–2.5 mm, acute to obtuse; corona 3.5–6 mm long, consisting of tube 1.5–2 mm long and threads 2–5 mm long; stamens 5, filaments 3–7 mm long, joint at the base, anthers 2.5–3.5 mm long, sometimes apiculate; ovary in bisexual flowers ellipsoid, 2.5–3.5 mm Χ c. 1.5 mm, styles 3, 1.5–3.5 mm long, connate for 0.5–1.5 mm, free for 0.5–1 mm, stigmas globular, ovary in male flowers much reduced and 1.5–2 mm long. Fruit a woody capsule, 1–4 together, ellipsoid, 2–4 cm Χ 1.5–2.5 cm, obtuse to subacute at both ends; with 3 wide grooves and 3 valves 2.5–3 mm thick at the sutures, 6–12-seeded. Seeds c. 6 mm Χ 5 mm, with 3–4 pits across the length.
Efulensia is a small genus of 2 species in tropical Africa. Efulensia clematoides C.H.Wright
is used as a medicinal plant. Efulensia was formerly included in Deidamia from Madagascar, which it resembles very much in habit and by the 3- or 5-foliolate leaves. Deidamia commersoniana DC., a liana up to 20 m long, yields fibre of fair durability.
Ecology
Efulensia montana occurs in rainforest at 850–2000 m altitude.
Management
The plants are only collected from the wild.
Genetic resources and breeding
Efulensia montana does not seem to be in danger of genetic erosion.
Prospects
Efulensia montana will probably remain a fibre plant of local value only. As the only other Efulensia species is used as a medicinal plant, it might be interesting to conduct research on the medicinal uses and properties of Efulensia montana.
Major references
• de Wilde, W.J.J.O., 1974. Account on Efulensia (Passifloraceae). Blumea 22: 31–35.
• de Wilde, W.J.J.O., 1975. Passifloraceae. In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 71 pp.
• Robyns, A., 1995. Passifloraceae. In: Bamps, P. (Editor). Flore d’Afrique centrale. Spermatophytes. Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium. 75 pp.
• Yamada, T., 1984. Nyindu culture and the plant world: the dynamic relationship between the knowledge on plant use and the change in house form. Senri Ethnological Studies No 15. 107 pp. [Internet] http://ir.minpaku.ac.jp/ dspace/bitstream/10502/431/1/ SES15_003.pdf. Accessed February 2010.
• Yamada, T., 1999. A report of the ethnobotany of the Nyindu in the eastern part of the former Zaire. African Study Monographs 20(1): 1–72.
Other references
• Decary, R., 1946. Plantes et animaux utiles de Madagascar. Annales du Musιe Colonial de Marseille, 54e annιe, 6e sιrie, 4e volume, 1er et dernier fascicule. 234 pp.
• Feuillet, C. & MacDougal, J.M., 2007. Passifloraceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (Editor). The families and genera of vascular plants. Volume 9. Flowering plants - eudicots. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. pp. 270–281.
• Perrier de la Bβthie, H., 1945. Passifloracιes (Passifloraceae). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (plantes vasculaires), famille 143. Imprimerie Officielle, Tananarive, Madagascar. 50 pp.
• Yamagiwa, J., Mwanza, N., Yumoto, T. & Maruhashi, T., 1994. Seasonal change in the composition of the diet of eastern lowland gorillas. Primates 35: 1–14.
Author(s)
• L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
• M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• E.G. Achigan Dako
PROTA Network Office Africa, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), P.O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

Correct citation of this article:
Oyen, L.P.A., 2010. Efulensia montana W.J.De Wilde. In: Brink, M. & Achigan-Dako, E.G. (Editors). Prota 16: Fibres/Plantes ΰ fibres. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.