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Entada pervillei (Vatke) R.Vig.

Protologue
Notul. Syst. (Paris) 13: 347 (1948).
Family
Mimosaceae (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae)
Synonyms
Piptadenia pervillei Vatke (1880).
Origin and geographic distribution
Entada pervillei is restricted to northern and western Madagascar.
Uses
The wood of Entada pervillei is used in Madagascar for the hull and other parts of canoes, for paddles and for the construction of stilt houses.
Properties
In a screening test of extracts of Madagascan plants, Entada pervillei has shown some antiplasmodial activity.
Botany
Small tree up to 15 m tall, rarely up to 30 m tall; twigs glabrous. Leaves alternate, bipinnately compound, with 8–16 pairs of pinnae; petiole 1–5.5 cm long, glabrous; rachis 8–18 cm long, ridged and shortly hairy above, with fleshy cushions between the pinnae; leaflets opposite, in 26–72 pairs per pinna, obliquely linear-oblong, up to 10.5 mm × 2 mm, acute at apex, leathery, glabrous. Inflorescence a spike-like raceme up to 25 cm long, several together forming a terminal panicle; peduncle up to 2 cm long. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous, white; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long; calyx cup-shaped, c. 1.5 mm long, with short lobes; corolla 3.5–4 mm long, with short tube and fleshy lobes, glabrous; stamens 10, united at base, c. 6 mm long; ovary superior, shortly stalked, hairy, 1-celled, style filiform, 4–5.5 mm long. Fruit a narrowly oblong pod 18–25 cm × 2.5–4.5 cm, strongly compressed, 2–2.5 cm long stiped, glabrous, with papery blackish brown outer layer peeling off and exposing the straw-coloured inner layer, several-seeded, breaking up into 1-seeded segments. Seeds oblong-ovate, flattened, c. 17 mm × 10 mm, brown.
Entada comprises about 30 species and occurs throughout the tropics. About 15 species occur in continental Africa and 6 in Madagascar.
Entada louvelii (R.Vig.) Brenan strongly resembles Entada pervillei, but differs in its more obtuse leaflets, sessile flowers and glabrous ovary. It is found in eastern Madagascar, and its wood is occasionally used for carpentry and as fuel. In Madagascar the wood of Entada chrysostachys (Benth.) Drake (synonym: Piptadenia chrysostachys (Benth.) Benth.) is sometimes used for stakes in local house construction, for musical instruments and as fuel. Entada chrysostachys is a shrub to small tree up to 10 m tall or liana, occurring in dry woodland and along rivers from Tanzania to Mozambique, Comoros and Madagascar. It differs from the other two species in fewer leaflets and in the presence of stipels. In Madagascar a leaf infusion is drunk to treat colic, and a root decoction as stimulant; root powder is applied to abscesses.
Ecology
Entada pervillei occurs in evergreen humid forest and seasonally dry deciduous woodland, on sandy or limestone soils, up to 700 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Although Entada pervillei is endemic to Madagascar, there are no indications that it is endangered.
Prospects
The timber of Entada pervillei and other Entada spp. will probably remain of little importance because of the often small size of the trees.
Major references
• du Puy, D.J., Labat, J.N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J., 2002. The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 750 pp.
• Rasolofo, M.V., 1997. Use of mangroves by traditional fishermen in Madagascar. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1(4): 243–253.
Other references
• Bandaranayake, W.M., 1998. Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 2: 133–148.
• Boiteau, P., Boiteau, M. & Allorge-Boiteau, L., 1999. Dictionnaire des noms malgaches de végétaux. 4 Volumes + Index des noms scientifiques avec leurs équivalents malgaches. Editions Alzieu, Grenoble, France.
• Brenan, J.P.M., 1970. Leguminosae (Mimosoideae). In: Brenan, J.P.M. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 3, part 1. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 153 pp.
• Capuron, R., 1957. Essai d’introduction à l’étude de la flore forestière de Madagascar. Inspection Générale des Eaux et Forêts, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 125 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Rasoanaivo, P., Ramanitrahasimbola, D., Rafatro, H., Rakotondramanana, D., Robijaona, B., Rakotozafy, A., Ratsimamanga-Urverg, S., Labaïed, M., Grellier, P., Allorge, L., Mambu, L. & Frappier, F., 2004. Screening extracts of Madagascan plants in search of antiplasmodial compounds. Phytotherapy Research 18(9): 742–747.
Author(s)
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
J.R. Cobbinah
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana

Correct citation of this article:
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., 2007. Entada pervillei (Vatke) R.Vig. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.