PROTA homepage Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1
Record display


Erythrococca anomala (Juss. ex Poir.) Prain

Protologue
Ann. Bot. 25: 614 (1911).
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Chromosome number
2n = 30
Synonyms
Erythrococca aculeata Benth. (1849).
Vernacular names
Bush lime (En).
Origin and geographic distribution
Erythrococca anomala occurs from Guinea Bissau east to Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko) and Gabon.
Uses
The leaves are laxative and purgative and considered very effective against tapeworm. A decoction of young leaves is applied against skin lesions and subcutaneous parasites. Sap of the leaves is used as eye drops to treat sore eyes, as nose drops to treat sinusitis and as ear drops to treat ear infections. To treat eye injuries, leaves are folded into a funnel and filled with water; after a while the water is dropped into the eye. Leafy twigs are used to clean and disinfect wounds and ulcers. In Guinea dried and ground leaves mixed with seeds of melegueta pepper (Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K.Schum.) is taken as a snuff against chronic headache. Leaf pulp is also used as a rub to treat local pain. In Côte d’Ivoire powdered leaves alone or mixed with those of Psychotria peduncularis (Salisb.) Steyerm. and clay are applied in friction against malaria in children and rubbed on the neck and throat against meningitis. In Cameroon a decoction of the leaves is taken to expel tapeworms. A leaf macerate is applied to the tooth to treat toothache. In Nigeria the bark is used against arthritis and rheumatism. The fruit pulp or the root bark are taken as a tonic against general weakness.
Properties
The roots and bark contain about 1% alkaloids, the twigs and leaves about 0.1%. Alkaloids have also been found in the seeds.
Botany
Dioecious, spiny shrub up to 3 m tall; bark flaky, brown. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules formed into persistent spines, brown; petiole short; blade ovate to oblong, 4–5 cm × 2–3 cm, base obtuse, apex acuminate, margin wavy, glabrous, pinnately veined with 2–3 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary raceme. Flowers unisexual, minute, whitish to pale yellow; calyx 4-lobed; corolla absent; male flowers with 9–15 stamens; female flowers with superior ovary, 3-lobed. Fruit a 2(–3)-lobed capsule, red when mature. Seeds globular, pitted, covered by a thin orange to bright red aril.
Erythrococca comprises about 40 species and is confined to mainland Africa. Erythrococca anomala is a fast growing heliophile. It flowers at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season.
Erythrococca africana (Baill.) Prain occurs from Cape Verde and Senegal to Cameroon. The powdered dry leaves are taken with food as a mild purgative; crushed leaves are applied to whitlow. In Nigeria hunters add the leaves to meat to make it tender. Erythrococca chevalieri (Beille) Prain, occurring from Guinea east to Cameroon and the Congo basin, and Erythrococca welwitschiana (Müll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm. from Central Africa have similar medicinal uses in Congo. The leaves are considered aphrodisiac and are taken against gonorrhoea and are also applied to heal sores and scabies. Leaf sap is drunk against bronchial complaints and is externally applied to treat itch and a stiff neck. An infusion of the roots is taken to relieve stomach complaints. The leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In Cameroon Erythrococca chevalieri is also used in witchcraft. Erythrococca hispida (Pax) Prain occurs in forest in Cameroon. The leaves are ground with salt and applied to scarifications to treat kidney pain. Young leaves are eaten with vegetable salt and cooked banana against gastro-intestinal problems.
Ecology
In Sierra Leone Erythrococca anomala occurs in forest relics in the savanna; in Cameroon in riverine forest and in shady forest undergrowth. It occurs from sea-level up to 1600 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Erythrococca anomala has a wide distribution and is common, and is not in danger of genetic erosion.
Prospects
Erythrococca anomala has important uses in traditional medicine. As a recent revision of the genus is lacking and almost nothing is known on its chemical and pharmacological properties, there is an urgent need for botanical and pharmacological studies to verify its potential.
Major references
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Aboubakar, N., Dramane, K., Ebot, M.E., Ekpere, J.A., Enow-Orock, E.G., Focho, D., Gbilé, Z.O., Kamanyi, A., Kamsu, K.J., Keita, A., Mbenkum, T., Mbi, C.N., Mbiele, A.L., Mbome, I.L., Mubiru, N.K., Nancy, W.L., Nkongmeneck, B., Satabié, B., Sofowora, A., Tamze, V. & Wirmum, C.K., 1996. Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Cameroon. CSTR/OUA, Cameroon. 641 pp.
• Basilevskaia, V., 1969. Plantes médicinales de Guinée. Imprimerie nationale de Guinée, Conakry, Guinea. Vol 1. 270 pp.
• Burkill, H.M., 1985. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 1, Families A–D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 960 pp.
• Keay, R.W.J., 1958. Euphorbiaceae. In: Keay, R.W.J. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1, part 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 364–423.
• Tokuoka, T., 2007. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and ovule and seed character evolution. Journal of Plant Research 120(4): 511–522.
Other references
• Brisson, R., 1988. Utilisation des plantes par les pygmées Baka: textes pour l’étude de la langue. Collège Liberman, Douala, Cameroon. 355 pp.
• Kabouw, P., Van Welzen, P.C., Baas, P. & Van Heuven, B.J., 2008. Styloid crystals in Claoxylon (Euphorbiaceae) and allies (Claoxylinae) with notes on leaf anatomy. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156(3): 445–457.
• Keita, S.M., Arnason, J.T., Baum, B.R., Marles, R., Camara, F. & Traoré, A.K., 1999. Etude ethnopharmacologique traditionnelle de quelques plantes médicinales anthelminthiques de la Haute-Guinée (République de Guinée). Revue de médecines et pharmacopées africaines 13: 49–64.
• Malato Beliz, J., 1977. Plants new to Guinea-Bissau. Part 2. Tiliaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Garcia De Orta, Serie de Botanica 3(2): 63–66.
Author(s)
R.B. Jiofack Tafokou
Ecologic Museum of Cameroon, P.O. Box 8038, Yaoundé, Cameroon


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Jiofack Tafokou, R.B., 2008. Erythrococca anomala (Juss. ex Poir.) Prain. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.