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Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden

Protologue
Forest fl. N.S.W. 1: 79 (1903).
Family
Myrtaceae
Chromosome number
2n = 22
Vernacular names
Flooded gum, rose gum (En). Eucalipto branco (Po).
Origin and geographic distribution
The natural distribution of Eucalyptus grandis is restricted to Queensland and New South Wales in Australia. It has, however, become an important plantation tree in the tropics and subtropics and one of the most important commercial Eucalyptus spp., with more than 0.5 million ha planted in tropical and subtropical areas outside Australia, including Africa. Massive planting programmes have been carried out in South Africa, where it was introduced in 1885, and in Brazil, and there are substantial plantings in Angola, Zimbabwe, Argentina, Uruguay and India.
Uses
The wood is used for construction, flooring, joinery, panelling, shingles, boat building, wheels, poles, posts, furniture, boxes, crates, mine props, veneer and plywood. It is also suitable for handles and ladders, agricultural implements, sporting goods, toys, novelties, turnery, railway sleepers, hardboard, particle board and wood-wool. It is used as fuelwood for domestic purposes and for curing tobacco, especially in Uganda, and also for charcoal production.
Eucalyptus grandis is an important source of pulp for the production of printing, writing, specialty and tissue papers. It is planted as an ornamental and shade tree, and in windbreaks. It is also useful as a bee forage.
In DR Congo a decoction of ground branch tips is taken against constipation.
Production and international trade
For 1995 it was estimated that worldwide Eucalyptus plantations amounted to 14.6 million ha, of which 1.8 million ha in Africa. Much of this is in South Africa, where about 560,000 ha is planted with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna Sm. Angola has 128,000 ha of mostly Eucalyptus grandis.
In the 1980s the area planted with Eucalyptus grandis was estimated at 1 million ha, with the major producing countries being, in order of importance: Brazil, South Africa, Angola, Argentina, India, Zimbabwe and Malawi. In tropical Africa significant plantings have also been made in Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, DR Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Namibia and Mozambique. Eucalyptus grandis is an important species in Zimbabwe constituting over 90% of the total hardwood plantation area.
Properties
The colour of the heartwood ranges from almost white to pink or dark red, the up to 5 cm wide sapwood is paler. The grain is straight or interlocked, texture medium to coarse. Gum veins are common.
The wood has a density of 540–775 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. It is somewhat difficult to dry, but checking can be avoided by careful control of the conditions during the early stages of drying. The rates of shrinkage from green to oven dry are high: 4.0–7.7% radial and 7.5–12.7% tangential. The wood is usually not stable in service.
At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 80–129(–172) N/mm², modulus of elasticity 9900–15,800 N/mm², compression parallel to grain 31–68 N/mm², compression perpendicular to grain 4–6 N/mm², shear 7–11 N/mm², cleavage 15–21 N/mm, Janka side hardness 3820–6540 N, Janka end hardness 4000–5510 N and Chalais-Meudon side hardness 1.7–3.6.
The wood works well with machine and hand tools, but the surface may be woolly and the wood has a tendency to splinter. It saws cleanly, planes excellently and takes all kinds of finish well. Nail and screw holding properties are good, but the wood tends to split on nailing. The gluing properties are good.
The wood is moderately durable at best, and untreated wood is not suitable for use in contact with the ground. It is liable to attacks by termites and marine borers. The sapwood is generally resistant to Lyctus borers. The heartwood is resistant to impregnation with preservatives, the sapwood is permeable.
The wood of Eucalyptus grandis has an energy value of 18,100–19,400 kJ/kg. In wood from 5.5-year-old trees from Zambia fibres were 0.8 mm long, with a diameter of 16.6 μm and a cell wall thickness of 2.9 μm. It contained 69.5% holocellulose, 41.2% α-cellulose, 23.2% lignin and 0.2% ash. The solubility in hot water was 2.1%, in alcohol 1.3%, in alcohol-benzene 1.0% and in 1% NaOH 13.8%. Sulphate pulping gave yields of 52–58%, with strength characteristics comparing very favourable with those of pulps from other hardwoods. Wood from 10-year-old trees from Australia had fibres 0.9 mm long, with a diameter of 22 μm. It contained 43% cellulose, 21% glucuronoxylan and 30% lignin. A bleached kraft pulp yield of 53% was obtained, with 3.9 m³ wood needed to obtain 1 t of bleached pulp.
The leaves yield 0.3–4.7% essential oil, containing α-pinene (30.4–68.9%), β-pinene (0.4–46.6%), p-cymene (up to 16.1%), terpinen-4-ol (up to 10.7%), 1,8-cineole (up to 4.8%), α-terpineol (0.5–8.0%), limonene (2.4–5.6%) and (E)-β-ocimene (up to 9.4%). The essential oil has shown larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with α-pinene being the principal larvicidal component. Euglobals from the leaves have shown anti-carcinogenic activity and inhibitory effects on Epstein Barr virus activation.
Description
Evergreen, medium-sized to very large tree up to 60 m tall; bole straight, cylindrical, branchless for up to 30 m, up to 200 cm in diameter; bark surface smooth, white, grey-white or blue-grey, with some rough and flaky bark at the base of the bole; crown spreading. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole channelled, 1.5–2(–3.5) cm long; blade lanceolate, sometimes sickle-shaped, 10–16(–20) cm × (1.5–)2–3 cm, long-acuminate at apex, leathery, glabrous, paler green below, pinnately veined, aromatic when crushed. Inflorescence a solitary, axillary, umbel-like condensed and reduced dichasium, (3–) 7–11-flowered; peduncle flattened, 8–18 mm long. Flowers bisexual, regular, whitish; pedicel angular and up to 3 mm long; flower buds ovoid to broadly spindle-shaped, divided into an obconical or bell-shaped hypanthium (lower part) 3–4 mm × 4–5 mm, and a conical or slightly beaked operculum (upper part) 3–4 mm × 4–5 mm; stamens numerous; ovary inferior, 4– 6-celled. Fruit a thin-walled, more or less pear-shaped capsule 5–8 mm × 4–8 mm, opening with 4–5(–6) exserted, more or less incurved valves, many-seeded. Seeds brown. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Other botanical information
Eucalyptus comprises about 800 species, endemic to Australia, except for about 10 species in the eastern part of South-East Asia. Many Eucalyptus species are cultivated outside their natural distribution area, in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, because of their rapid growth and adaptation to a wide range of ecological conditions. In Africa Eucalyptus globulus Labill. has long been the most important Eucalyptus species, but its importance has declined, although it is still important in cooler climates. Nowadays the main commercial species in Africa are Eucalyptus grandis in more fertile locations, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in drier regions, and Eucalyptus robusta Sm. in more tropical regions.
Eucalyptus is divided into several subgenera (7–10, depending on the author), which are subdivided into many sections and series. The results of phylogenetic studies within Eucalyptus suggest that the genus is polyphyletic, hence not of a single evolutionary origin, and consequently it has been proposed to divide the genus into several distinct genera. This has not yet been done, mainly because of the nomenclatural whirlpool this would bring about. Eucalyptus species hybridize easily, which adds to the taxonomic complexity.
Eucalyptus grandis often hybridizes with the closely related Eucalyptus saligna Sm., from which it is distinguished most easily by the shape of the fruit valves. Most stands of Eucalyptus grandis / Eucalyptus saligna in Africa are of hybrid origin. Eucalyptus grandis also hybridizes with Eucalyptus botryoides Sm., Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake.
Anatomy
Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):
Growth rings: 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 7: vessels in diagonal and/or radial pattern; 9: vessels exclusively solitary (90% or more); 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large ( 10 μm); 29: vestured pits; 31: vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits rounded or angular; (42: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100–200 μm); 43: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 μm; 46: 5 vessels per square millimetre; 47: 5–20 vessels per square millimetre; 56: tyloses common. Tracheids and fibres: 60: vascular/vasicentric tracheids present; 62: fibres with distinctly bordered pits; 63: fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls; 66: non-septate fibres present; 69: fibres thin- to thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: (76: axial parenchyma diffuse); 79: axial parenchyma vasicentric; 83: axial parenchyma confluent; 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand; 93: eight (5–8) cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: (96: rays exclusively uniseriate); (97: ray width 1–3 cells); 104: all ray cells procumbent; 106: body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells; 115: 4–12 rays per mm; 116: 12 rays per mm. Mineral inclusions: 136: prismatic crystals present; 141: prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells; 142: prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells.
(D. Louppe, P. Détienne & E.A. Wheeler)
Growth and development
Eucalyptus grandis grows very fast. In Kenya at 2100 m altitude trees were 4.3 m tall after 14 months, and at 2400 m altitude they were 6.7–7.3 m tall after 27 months. In trials in Madagascar, 13-year-old trees were 40–45 m tall.
Trees start to flower after 4–5 years. In Ethiopia flowering is in July–December. Insects, particularly honeybees, pollinate the flowers. In an individual flower, the stigma is not receptive until after pollen is shed, but because each tree flowers over a longer period, there is ample opportunity for self-fertilization. In a South African seed orchard, selfing occurred at a rate of 10–38%, causing detrimental abnormalities in seedlings and a growth reduction of 8–49% compared to crossed progenies. Fruits ripen 6–7 months after flowering.
Ecology
Eucalyptus grandis grows best in humid, subtropical conditions at low altitudes, in natural conditions often on slopes and in valleys, open forest and rainforest edges. It is grown from sea-level up to 2500 m altitude, in areas with a mean annual temperature of 14–26°C, a mean maximum temperature of the warmest month of 25–35°C, a mean minimum temperature of the coldest month of –1°C to 18°C, and an average annual rainfall of 700–4000 mm, with a dry season of maximal 7 months. It is moderately tolerant to frost and wind, but does not withstand severe frost. It is highly susceptible to damage by fire. Eucalyptus grandis grows best on deep, well drained, fertile loam or clay-loam soils, but it also does well on sandy soils of sufficient depth. It is suitable for slightly saline sites.
Propagation and planting
Eucalyptus grandis is easily propagated with seed. The 1000-seed weight is 1.5–1.7 g. Fruits remain closed on the tree for at least 1 year after maturity, so it is possible to gather two seed crops at a time by harvesting in alternate years. Fruits contain 3–25 healthy seeds, on average 8, and a much greater mass of infertile ovules called ‘chaff’. Fertile seeds are tiny, only about 1 mm in diameter. Chaff particles are lighter coloured and only minutely smaller than seeds. Seed cleaning involves sorting by size and shape through multiple sieves, then separating by weight. Seeds remain viable for several years when stored in containers under cold and dry conditions. They have been successfully stored for 20 years by either freezing at –8°C or refrigerating at 10°C. Seeds require no presowing treatment, and germination takes place 7–14 days after sowing. Seedlings are grown in containers or plastic bags, and planted out in the field when 20–30 cm tall, which takes 2–6 months. Since weeds severely limit growth, mechanical or chemical site preparation is essential before sowing, if rapid rates of growth are to be achieved and maintained. Fertilizer application at planting is often highly beneficial. Seedlings are planted at spacings ranging from 2 m × 2 m to 5 m × 5 m, sometimes 3 m × 1 m. In Ethiopia farmers sometimes spread branches with mature fruits on the site, and when the fruits have opened and the seeds have been dispersed, the soil is kept moist to ensure germination. When the plants have become established, the branches are removed, and later the stand is thinned to a suitable spacing. Wildlings may also be used for planting.
Cuttings from small seedlings root readily, but rooting capability ceases before seedlings are 1 m tall because of natural rooting inhibitors produced by the leaves. However, even in adult trees, cuttings from water sprouts induced at the base of the tree by felling or girdling retain the ability to root. This technique is particularly advantageous in multiplying outstanding individuals. Starting in the 1970s, some commercial plantations were propagated by rooted cuttings in Brazil, where the method is now used to establish major clonal plantations. Clonal seed orchards have been produced by grafting in South Africa, but delayed graft incompatibility is a common problem. Incompatibility can be greatly reduced by grafting scions onto sibling or half-sibling rootstocks. Methods of reproduction through tissue culture techniques have also been developed.
Management
Frequent weeding is necessary in the first years after planting, until the canopy closes. In Zambia the application of boron is recorded to be important to reduce die-back and improve growth. The tree is self-pruning, thus pruning is not required. Eucalyptus grandis coppices well. Common rotations are 6–12 years for the production of fuelwood, pulpwood, poles and mine timber, usually without thinning. For the production of sawlogs rotations of up to 30 years are applied, with several thinnings to a final density of 150–250 trees/ha. In coppicing systems, the number of shoots remaining after coppicing should be reduced to 1–2 when they are 7–8 m tall.
Diseases and pests
Botryosphaeria stem canker is prevalent in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and other Eucalyptus species in Ethiopia. It is caused by Botryosphaeria parva, and results in die-back and death of trees under stress conditions. In Uganda Eucalyptus grandis is attacked by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Botryodiplodia theobromae), associated with stem cankers and die-back. Young trees are attacked by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, which may cause death. Another threat in Uganda is the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata, causing wilt. The fungus Diaporthe cubensis causes an important canker disease in South America. Severe nursery losses have been suffered from a stem-girdling fungal cancer caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium. Root rot fungi are a serious problem in Zambia. At lower altitudes in Africa the pink disease fungus Corticium salmonicolor is important.
Young trees are very susceptible to termite attack. In Zambia Phoracantha stem borers have been recorded and in Angola the leaf-eating moth Bazura abruptaria. Eucalyptus grandis is more resistant to the eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus scutellatus) than many other Eucalyptus species.
Harvesting
In coppicing systems, stems are best harvested by saw and not by axe, to minimize damage to the stool and reduce the risk of fungal infection. Logs are generally straight and well-shaped, but they tend to split severely on cross-cutting, due to the release of growth stresses, and chain banding before felling is recommended. Heart rot may develop in trees over 40 years old. After harvest, under favourable conditions, Eucalyptus grandis plantations regenerate by sprouting from the stumps. Two or three coppice rotations are commonly harvested before it is necessary to replant. Coppice shoots initially grow faster than seedlings, but that advantage is partially offset by stump mortality, which usually affects about 5% of the stumps per rotation in South Africa. In many areas coppices form equally well regardless of the season of harvest.
Yield
In Uganda a mean annual increment of 14–25 m³/ha is recorded for good savanna sites, and 17–45 m³ for forest sites. In Zimbabwe mean annual increments are 7–30 m³/ha in rainfed locations, whereas irrigated stands yield 40 m³/ha. In Madagascar annual yields up to 86 m³/ha have been obtained. Coppice rotations generally outyield seedling rotations. In Muguga (Kenya) the mean annual increment of the initial seedling crop averages 30 m³/ha, compared to 46 m³/ha for coppice crops.
Handling after harvest
Logs are liable to attacks by pinhole borers and tend to end-split. Losses can be kept at a minimum by milling within 3 days of cutting, bucking to lengths as long as possible, and sawing carefully.
Genetic resources
Provenance variation is considerable in Eucalyptus grandis. Provenance trials and seed orchards have been planted in Madagascar. In South Africa genotypes have been selected which are less prone to end-splitting. Genetic linkage maps have been constructed of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus globulus and their hybrid, using AFLP marker analysis.
Breeding
Hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake are widely planted in Congo and Brazil, with the latter conferring resistance to canker and leaf fungi, to which the former is highly susceptible. South African hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis and other Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus urophylla) have shown good results in trials, and local hybrids are being developed. Transgenic plants have been obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation.
Prospects
Eucalyptus grandis is a very fast-growing, well-coppicing species, but the quality of its wood is only mediocre, making it not particularly favourable for the production of timber. Especially the consequences of growth stresses are important limiting factors in the use of the timber. Techniques such as steaming or quartersawing may reduce the effects of tension wood in sawn timber. Its favourable bole characteristics (straight, self-pruning) make Eucalyptus grandis suitable for poles, pegs and light construction, and its role as a supplier of pulpwood may increase in tropical Africa.
Major references
• Bekele-Tesemma, A., 2007. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia: identification, propagation and management for 17 agroclimatic zones. Technical Manual No 6. RELMA in ICRAF Project, Nairobi, Kenya. 552 pp.
• Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. 710 pp.
• Bouvet, J.-M. & Andrianirina, G., 1990. L’Eucalyptus grandis à Madagascar : potentialités, bilan et orientations des travaux d’amélioration génétique. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 226: 5–19.
• Chippendale, G.M., 1988. Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: George, A.S. (Editor). Flora of Australia, Volume 19. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia. 540 pp.
• Cotterill, P. & Macrae, S., 1997. Improving eucalyptus pulp and paper quality using genetic selection and good organization. Tappi Journal 80(6): 82–89.
• Eldridge, K., Davidson, J., Harwood, C. & van Wijk, G., 1993. Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. xix + 288 pp.
• Jacobs, M.R., 1981. Eucalypts for planting. 2nd Edition. FAO Forestry Series No 11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 677 pp.
• Lamb, D., Johns, R.J., Keating, W.G., Ilic, J. & Jongkind, C.C.H., 1993. Eucalyptus L’Hér. In: Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(1). Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 200–211.
• Schönau, A.P.G., 1984. Silvicultural considerations for high productivity of Eucalyptus grandis. Forest Ecology and Management 9(4): 295–314.
• Takahashi, A., 1978. Compilation of data on the mechanical properties of foreign woods (part 3) Africa. Shimane University, Matsue, Japan, 248 pp.
Other references
• Chifundera, K., 2001. Contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants from the Bushi area, South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Fitoterapia 72: 351–368.
• Chilufya, H. & Tengnäs, B., 1996. Agroforestry extension manual for northern Zambia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. 120 + 124 pp.
• Coppen, J.J.W., 2002. Eucalyptus: the genus Eucalyptus. Medicinal and aromatic plants - industrial profiles, vol. 22. Taylor & Francis, London, United Kingdom. 450 pp.
• Dagne, E., Bisrat, D., Alemayehu, M. & Worku, T., 2000. Essential oils of twelve Eucalyptus species from Ethiopia. Journal of Essential Oil Research 12(4): 467–470.
• Dhamodaran, T.K. & Gnanaharan, R., 2007. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Bioresource Technology 98: 2240–2242.
• Hardie, A.D.K. & Wood, A.A., 1973. Eucalyptus grandis timber from plantations in Zambia. Commonwealth Forestry Review 52(2): 153–159.
• Katende, A.B., Birnie, A. & Tengnäs, B., 1995. Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda: identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Technical Handbook 10. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. 710 pp.
• Keating, W.G. & Bolza, E., 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Vol.1: South East Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia. 362 pp.
• Lamprecht, H., 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species, possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany. 296 pp.
• Lemenih, M. & Bekele, T., 2004. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia. Biomass and Bioenergy 27(3): 223–232.
• Lucia, A., Gonzalez Audino, P., Seccacini, E., Licastro, S., Zerba, E. & Masuh, H., 2007. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23(3): 299–303.
• Malan, F.S., 1993. The wood properties and qualities of three South African-grown eucalypt hybrids. South African Forestry Journal 167: 35–44.
• Palmer, E.R. & Gibbs, J.A., 1977. Pulping characteristics of Pinus kesiya and Eucalyptus grandis from Zambia. Report L47. Tropical Products Institute, London, United Kingdom. 24 pp.
• Parant, B., Chichignoud, M. & Curie, P., undated. Présentation graphique des caractères technologiques des principaux bois tropicaux. Tome 8. Bois du Burundi. CTFT, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 82 pp.
• Potts, B.M. & Dungey, H.S., 2004. Interspecific hybridization of eucalyptus: key issues for breeders and geneticists. New Forests 27(2): 115–138.
• Scott, A.J., 1993. Myrtacées. In: Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (Editors). Flore des Mascareignes. Familles 90–106. The Sugar Industry Research Institute, Mauritius, l’Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM), Paris, France & Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 70 pp.
• Singh, I.P., Umehara, K., Asai, T., Etoh, H., Takasaki, M. & Konoshima, T., 1998. Phloroglucinol-monoterpene adducts from Eucalyptus grandis. Phytochemistry 47(6): 1157–1159.
• Takasaki, M., Konoshima, T., Etoh, H., Singh, I.P., Tokuda, H. & Nishino, H., 2000. Cancer chemopreventive activity of euglobal-G1 from leaves of Eucalyptus grandis. Cancer Letters 155: 61–65.
• Webb, D.B., Wood, P.J., Smith, J.P. & Henman, G.S., 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. 2nd Edition. Tropical Forestry Papers No 15. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. 256 pp.
• World Agroforestry Centre, undated. Agroforestree Database. [Internet] World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ Sites/TreeDBS/ aft.asp. Accessed May 2008.
Sources of illustration
• Chippendale, G.M., 1988. Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: George, A.S. (Editor). Flora of Australia, Volume 19. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia. 540 pp.
• Katende, A.B., Birnie, A. & Tengnäs, B., 1995. Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda: identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Technical Handbook 10. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. 710 pp.
Author(s)
Nyunaï Nyemb
Institut de Recherches Médicales et d’Etudes des Plantes Médicinales, B.P. 3805, Yaoundé, Cameroon


Editors
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
J.R. Cobbinah
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Photo editor
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Nyunaï, N., 2008. Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map planted


1, tree habit; 2, twig with flower buds; 3, flower buds; 4, fruits.
Redrawn and adapted by R.H.M.J. Lemmens



plantation
obtained from
University of Hawaii


14-year-old plantation, Madagascar


tree habit


seeds
obtained from
S. Hurst


wood
obtained from
Carlton McLendon, Inc.


wood in transverse section


wood in tangential section


wood in radial section