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Hoplestigma klaineanum Pierre

Protologue
Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris, ser. 2, 1: 116 (1899).
Family
Hoplestigmataceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Hoplestigma klaineanum is found in Côte d’Ivoire, southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
Uses
The wood of Hoplestigma klaineanum is used locally for carpentry and joinery.
Properties
The heartwood of Hoplestigma klaineanum is pale yellowish brown and indistinctly demarcated from the sapwood. It shows a silver-grain figure on quarter-sawn surfaces. The wood is medium-weight with a density of 600–650 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. It works easily and finishes nicely.
Botany
Small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; bole straight, up to 40 cm in diameter, with buttresses; bark surface dark grey, cracked, inner bark fibrous, white to orange darkening quickly to dark brown; young twigs hairy, later glabrous. Leaves alternate, clustered at the end of branches, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 1–1.5 cm long; blade broadly obovate-elliptical, 15–30 cm × 5–15 cm, base cuneate, apex rounded, glabrous above, stiffly short-hairy below, pinnately veined with 8–12 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence a terminal cyme, many-flowered. Flowers bisexual, regular, sessile, white; calyx 2-lobed; corolla tube c. 1 cm long, lobes 9, ovate, c. 1 cm long, glabrous; stamens numerous, inserted above base of corolla tube, exserted, anthers 4-celled; ovary superior, 2-celled, style with 2 long branches. Fruit a broadly ellipsoid 2-seeded drupe up to 3 cm long, yellow when ripe, with persistent calyx at base.
In Côte d’Ivoire seeds ripen in January–February.
Hoplestigma comprises only 2 species. Hoplestigma pierreanum Gilg occurs in the evergreen forest of coastal Cameroon and is threatened by forest clearance for timber and agriculture. It is critically endangered or possibly even extinct.
Ecology
Hoplestigma klaineanum occurs at low altitudes in evergreen forest and on river banks.
Management
There are about 250 seeds per kg. The germination rate is 20–30% after 30–45 days.
Genetic resources and breeding
The conservation status of Hoplestigma klaineanum is unclear, but it seems to be uncommon, and as the only other Hoplestigma species is critically endangered, protection measures are justified.
Prospects
Because of the small diameter of the bole and its restricted range Hoplestigma klaineanum is not likely to gain importance.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636 pp.
• Hawthorne, W. & Jongkind, C., 2006. Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 1023 pp.
• Raponda-Walker, A. & Sillans, R., 1961. Les plantes utiles du Gabon. Paul Lechevalier, Paris, France. 614 pp.
Other references
• Aubréville, A., 1959. La flore forestière de la Côte d’Ivoire. Deuxième édition révisée. Tome troisième. Publication No 15. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 334 pp.
• Cable, S. & Cheek, M., 1998. The plants of Mount Cameroon, a conservation checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 198 pp.
• Cheek, M. & Cable, S., 2000. Hoplestigma pierreanum. In: IUCN. 2008 Red list of threatened species. [Internet] http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed February 2009.
• de la Mensbruge, G., 1966. La germination et les plantules des essences arborées de la forêt dense humide de la Côte d’Ivoire. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 389 pp.
• Hepper, F.N., 1963. Hoplestigmataceae. In: Hepper, F.N. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 15–16.
• Normand, D., 1960. Atlas des bois de la Côte d’Ivoire. Tome 3. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 182 pp.
• Normand, D. & Paquis, J., 1976. Manuel d’identification des bois commerciaux. Tome 2. Afrique guinéo-congolaise. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 335 pp.
• Wang, W.M. & Harley, M.M., 2004. The Miocene genus Fupingopollenites: comparisons with ultrastructure and pseudocolpi in modern pollen. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 31(1–2): 117–145.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Associate editors
E.A. Obeng
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2010. Hoplestigma klaineanum Pierre. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Louppe, D. & Oteng-Amoako, A.A. (Editors). Prota 7(2): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 2. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.