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Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex Planch.

Protologue
Hook.f., Icon. pl. 8: t. 758 (1848).
Family
Pandaceae
Chromosome number
2n = 30
Synonyms
Microdesmis zenkeri Pax (1897).
Origin and geographic distribution
Microdesmis puberula occurs from eastern Nigeria east to DR Congo and Uganda.
Uses
The stem bark, leaves and roots have numerous medicinal uses throughout the distribution area of Microdesmis puberula; they are similar to the uses of the closely related species Microdesmis keayana J.Léonard. Leaf sap, or crushed and burnt twigs and roots are applied to snakebites or to scarifications. Leaf sap, sometimes together with twig sap, is commonly taken orally or applied as an enema to treat diarrhoea. It is rather mild and thus prescribed for pregnant women and young children. Leaf and stem sap or an infusion of them, sometimes combined with other plants, is commonly taken to treat stomach-ache, intestinal worms and genital problems such as menstrual complaints, sterility, miscarriage, loss of virility and venereal diseases. Leaf and stem sap, or a leaf or stem infusion is also externally applied to treat skin problems such as eczema, scabies, burns, circumcision wounds, abscesses and sores from gonorrhoea.
In Central Africa pregnant women drink a beverage made of macerated leaves, sometimes mixed with salt and onions, to ease delivery. In Nigeria a leaf decoction is taken to treat acute spleen pain. In Cameroon the Baka pygmies use leaf sap as nose drops to treat malaria and cough and as eye drops to treat blurred vision. In the Central African Republic the Lissongo people drink a leaf decoction and rub the breasts with crushed leaves to calm mastitis. Legs from newborn babies are also rubbed with crushed leaves to encourage rapid stand-up and walking. The Monzombo people massage the head with leaves, mixed with leaves of several other plants, to treat fever. Heated leaves are used in massage to relieve backache. Ash from burnt stems mixed with salt and palm oil is massaged into scarifications on the hip in case of limping. The Fang people of Gabon wash the head with macerated leaves to calm severe headache. In Congo leaves are pounded in water and the liquid is drunk to prevent fainting. Chopped up young leaves are eaten to treat a sore throat and colds. Leaf sap is used as ear drops to treat ear infections. The leaves are put in vapour baths to treat rheumatism. Crushed leaves and twigs are applied on glandular swellings, and the roots or pounded young leaves mixed with the juice of sugar cane are considered to be aphrodisiac. In DR Congo the Efe and Mbuti pygmies rub burnt and powdered bark and wood into incisions on the side of the body to treat rib pain. The pounded stem is mixed with salt and rubbed on scarifications to treat pneumonia. Ash of burnt roots mixed with palm oil is rubbed into scarifications to treat renal pain and severe headache. In Rwanda and Burundi grated roots are mixed with cornflour and eaten to cure gonorrhoea. The grated root is also applied on wounds and hernia. The boiled fruits are applied to tumours. Pounded fruits mixed with Capsicum fruits are eaten by the Baka pygmies to calm cough. Seeds are eaten to provide strength.
Most pygmy groups consume the leaves as a vegetable. The fruits are sometimes eaten, although they are laxative. In Nigeria Microdesmis puberula is a common browse species of goats and cattle. In DR Congo the Efe and Mbuti pygmies use the flexible stem as fishing rods. Young shoots are used by the Aka, Baka and Mbuti pygmies for hut building, and also to make snare hooks and harps. Older stems provide hard wooden stakes for yam support, digging sticks and hooks to attach hunting nets in the undergrowth. The wood is widely used to make chairs, spring traps, handles and implements. In south-eastern Nigeria the wood is made into a type of guitar. In DR Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, the older stems are made into arrows and bed frames. The twigs serve as chew sticks.
In many African societies Microdesmis puberula has magical uses. The vapour from burned leaves is believed to chase bad spirits from houses. The plant is reputedly deep-rooted and the Baka and Aka pygmies therefore use it as a magical protection against semi-wild yam tubers being robbed in the forest. In DR Congo the plant is used in concoctions to improve one’s luck.
Properties
In preliminary tests, traces of alkaloids were detected in stems and roots, but no further chemical or pharmacological analyses have been carried out. As a fodder shrub, Microdesmis puberula shows a high content of crude protein, 23–33%, and compares favourably with Leucaena and Gliricidia (22%). Analysis of the air-dry leaves shows the following results: dry matter 93%, crude protein 25.8%, ash 4.8%, crude fibre 19.9%, ether extract 6.3%, nitrogen-free extract 36.1%, acid-detergent fibre 21.3%, neutral-detergent fibre 46.5%, hemi-cellulose 25.2%, tannin 0.9%, phytin 25.2 mg/g, HCN 1.86 mg/g.
In different feeding experiments with broiler chickens using up to 10% Microdesmis puberula leaves in the meal, contradictory results were observed. When the leaves were used in laying hen diets, no significant differences were observed in body weight, egg shell thickness, yolk index and albumin index with up to 15% inclusion of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal. The intensity of the egg yolk coloration increased with increasing levels of the leaf meal in the diets. In a feeding experiment with dwarf goats, feeding mixed forages with a maximum of 25% Microdesmis puberula leaves led to an increase in the growth rate of goats.
The wood is brown, hard and flexible; it works easily and takes a lustrous polish.
Description
Dioecious shrub up to 6 m tall, sometimes small tree up to 15 m tall; stem up to 8 cm in diameter; twigs usually densely short-hairy. Leaves alternate, distichous, simple; stipules linear, up to 4 mm long, persistent; petiole 4–12 mm long; blade elliptical-oblong to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, 5–15(–20) cm × 2–6(–9) cm, base asymmetrical, cuneate to rounded, apex acute to acuminate, margin finely toothed to almost entire, shiny above, short-hairy on the midrib above. Inflorescence an axillary fascicle, male fascicle 5–many-flowered, female fascicle 1–3(–5)-flowered; bracts minute. Flowers unisexual, 5-merous, regular; calyx c. 2 mm long, lobes ovate, c. 1.5 mm long, short-hairy, green; petals almost circular to ovate-oblong, c. 3 mm × 2–2.5 mm, spreading, short-hairy in upper half, pink to orange; male flowers with pedicel 3–9 mm long, filaments c. 1 mm long, fleshy, fused to the pistillode, pistillode 2–2.5 mm long, reddish orange; female flowers with pedicel 3–4 mm long, enlarging to 5–10 mm in fruit, short-hairy, ovary superior, ellipsoid, c. 1 mm long, 2(–3)-celled, sparsely to densely short-hairy, styles 2, c. 1 mm long, white. Fruit an ovoid drupe 10–12 mm × 9–11 mm, smooth when fresh, later wrinkled, hard, shiny, red, (1–)2-seeded. Seeds broadly ovate, flattened, curved. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Other botanical information
Microdesmis comprises about 11 species, 2 of which occur in Asia and the others in tropical Africa. Microdesmis puberula and Microdesmis keayana are morphologically nearly similar, their medicinal uses are largely overlapping and they might well belong to the same species. The distribution area of Microdesmis keayana links up with that of Microdesmis puberula, from Nigeria west to Senegal.
Microdesmis haumaniana J.Léonard occurs from Cameroon south to Angola. In Congo ground fresh leaves, sometimes mixed with the rhizome of ginger, are applied as an enema to treat haemorrhoids. Plant sap is taken to treat gastrointestinal disorders including colic and diarrhoea, ovarian complaints and gonorrhoea. Leaf sap is used as ear drops to treat otitis. A vapour bath with boiled leaf sap is taken to treat rheumatism. The stems are made into bows.
Anatomy
Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):
Growth rings: 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 9: vessels exclusively solitary (90% or more); 12: solitary vessel outline angular; 14: scalariform perforation plates; 17: scalariform perforation plates with 20–40 bars; 18: scalariform perforation plates with 40 bars; 21: intervessel pits opposite; (24: intervessel pits minute ( 4 μm)); 25: intervessel pits small (4–7 μm); 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; 41: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 50–100 μm; 48: 20–40 vessels per square millimetre. Tracheids and fibres: 60: vascular/vasicentric tracheids present; (61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits); (62: fibres with distinctly bordered pits); (63: fibre pits common in both radial and tangential walls); 66: non-septate fibres present; 70: fibres very thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: 76: axial parenchyma diffuse; 77: axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates; 78: axial parenchyma scanty paratracheal; 91: two cells per parenchyma strand; 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand; 93: eight (5–8) cells per parenchyma strand; 94: over eight cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: 98: larger rays commonly 4- to 10-seriate; 102: ray height > 1 mm; 107: body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2–4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells; (108: body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells); 110: sheath cells present; 115: 4–12 rays per mm. Mineral inclusions: 136: prismatic crystals present; 137: prismatic crystals in upright and/or square ray cells; 138: prismatic crystals in procumbent ray cells; 142: prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells.
(P. Ng’andwe, H. Beeckman & P.E. Gasson)
Growth and development
When Microdesmis puberula is cut, it resprouts profusely from the base.
Ecology
Microdesmis puberula occurs in primary and secondary forest and at forest edges, also in fallow land, from sea-level up to 1100 m altitude.
Propagation and planting
Microdesmis puberula may germinate massively in fallow land. Seed dispersal is ensured mainly by monkeys.
Diseases and pests
Male inflorescences are sometimes galled and become panicle-like; male flowers can be deformed into scabs.
Genetic resources
As a common undergrowth species, Microdesmis puberula is not at risk of genetic erosion.
Prospects
Despite the extensive use of Microdesmis puberula as a medicinal plant, virtually nothing is known about its chemical composition or pharmacology, and research is warranted. Recent experiments to evaluate the effect of supplementing diets of chickens with Microdesmis puberula leaves showed contradictory results, possibly due to certain chemical compounds. As Microdesmis puberula and Microdesmis keayana resemble each other morphologically and in their medicinal uses, taxonomical studies are warranted.
Major references
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Ahyi, A.M.R., Aké Assi, L., Baniakina, J., Chibon, P., Cusset, G., Doulou, V., Enzanza, A., Eymé, J., Goudoté, E., Keita, A., Mbemba, C., Mollet, J., Moutsamboté, J.-M., Mpati, J. & Sita, P. (Editors), 1988. Médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée - Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en République Populaire du Congo. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 606 pp.
• Betti, J.L., 2004. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants among the Baka pygmies in the Dja biosphere reserve, Cameroon. African Study Monographs 25(1): 1–27.
• Bouquet, A. & Debray, M., 1974. Plantes médicinales de la Côte d’Ivoire. Travaux et Documents No 32. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 231 pp.
• Carter, S. & Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1988. Euphorbiaceae (part 2). In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. pp. 409–597.
• Esonu, B.O., Azubuike, J.C. & Ukwu, H.O., 2004. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in laying hen diets. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(2): 96–99.
• Hawthorne, W. & Jongkind, C., 2006. Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 1023 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Robyns, W., 1958. Pandaceae. In: Robyns, W., Staner, P., Demaret, F., Germain, R., Gilbert, G., Hauman, L., Homès, M., Jurion, F., Lebrun, J., Vanden Abeele, M. & Boutique, R. (Editors). Flore du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes. Volume 7. Institut National pour l’Étude Agronomique du Congo belge, Brussels, Belgium. pp. 1–4.
• Umoh, B.I., Okon, B.I., James, I.O. & Jacob, E.S., 2004. Effect of feeding varying levels of Microdesmis puberula and Alchornea cordifolia on the body size and carcass component of West Africa Goats (WAD). Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(1–2): 45–51.
• Villiers, J.-F., 1975. Pandaceae. Flore du Cameroun. Volume 19. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. pp. 42–58.
Other references
• Abbiw, D.K., 1990. Useful plants of Ghana: West African uses of wild and cultivated plants. Intermediate Technology Publications, London and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 337 pp.
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Adjakidjè, V., Ahyi, M.R.A., Aké Assi, L., Akoègninou, A., d’Almeida, J., Apovo, F., Boukef, K., Chadare, M., Cusset, G., Dramane, K., Eyme, J., Gassita, J.N., Gbaguidi, N., Goudote, E., Guinko, S., Houngnon, P., Lo, I., Keita, A., Kiniffo, H.V., Kone-Bamba, D., Musampa Nseyya, A., Saadou, M., Sodogandji, T., De Souza, S., Tchabi, A., Zinsou Dossa, C. & Zohoun, T., 1989. Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en République Populaire du Bénin. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 895 pp.
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Ahyi, M.R.A., Aké Assi, L., Akpagana, K., Chibon, P., El-Adji, A., Eymé, J., Garba, M., Gassita, J.N., Gbeassor, M., Goudote, E., Guinko, S., Hodouto, K.K., Houngnon P., Keita, A., Keoula, Y., Hodouto, W.P., Issa Lo, Siamevi, K.M. & Taffame, K.K., 1986. Contributions aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo. Médecine Traditionelle et Pharmacopée. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 671 pp.
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Aké Assi, L., Chibon, P., de Vecchy, H., Duboze, E., Eymé, J., Gassita, J.N., Goudote, E., Guinko, S., Keita, A., Koudogbo, B., Landreau, D., Owadally, A.W. & Soopramanien, A., 1984. Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Gabon. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 294 pp.
• Bouquet, A., 1969. Féticheurs et médecines traditionnelles du Congo (Brazzaville). Mémoires ORSTOM No 36. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer. Paris, France. 282 pp.
• Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Dounias, E., 1993. The perception and use of wild yams by the Baka hunter-gatherers in south Cameroon rainforest. In: Hladik, C.M., Pagezy, H., Linares, O.F., Hladik, A., Semple, A. & Hadley, M. (Editors). Tropical forests, people and food. Biocultural interactions and applications to development. Unesco-Parthenon, Man and Biosphere serie, Paris, France. pp. 621–632.
• Esonu, B.O., Azubuike, J.C., Emenalom, O.O., Etuk, E.B., Okoli, I.C., Ukwu, H. & Nneji, C.S., 2004. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance of broiler finisher fed Microdesmis puberula leaf meal. International Journal of Poultry Science 3(2): 112–114.
• Esonu, B.O., Iheukwumere, F.C., Emenalom, O.O., Uchegbu, M.C. & Etuk, E.B., 2002. Performance, nutrient utilisation and organ characteristics of broilers fed Microdesmis puberula leaf meal. Livestock Research for Rural Development 14(6): 1–5.
• Esonu, B.O., Iheukwumere, F.C., Iwuji, T.C., Akanu, N. & Nwugo, O.H., 2003. Evaluation of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal as feed ingredient in broiler starter diets. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 30(1–2): 3–8.
• Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A., 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (with Pandaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 1620 pp.
• InsideWood, undated. [Internet] http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search/. Accessed May 2007.
• Léonard, J., 1961. Notulae systematicae XXXI. Révision des espèces africaines de Microdesmis (Euphorbiacées). Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’Etat (Bruxelles) 31: 159–187.
• Lewis, W.H., 1980. Plants used as chewing sticks. Journal of Preventative Dentistry 6: 71–73.
• Motte, E., 1980. Les plantes chez les Pygmées Aka et les Monzombo de la Lobaye (Centrafrique). Société d’Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France, Paris, France. 573 pp.
• Okafor, J. & Ham, R., 1999. Identification, utilisation et conservation des plantes médicinales dans le sud-est du Nigeria. Thèmes de la biodiversité africaine. Le programme d’appui à la biodiversité 3. 8 pp.
• Okoli, I.C., Ebere, C.S., Emenalom, O.O., Uchegbu, M.C. & Esonu, B.O., 2001. Indigenous livestock paradigms revisited 11. An assessment of the proximate value of most preferred indigenous browses of southeastern Nigeria. Tropical Animal Production Investigation 4(2): 99–107.
• Terashima, H. & Ichikawa, M., 2003. A comparative ethnobotany of the Mbuti and Efe hunter-gatherers in the Ituri forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Study Monographs 24(1–2): 1–168.
Sources of illustration
• Carter, S. & Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1988. Euphorbiaceae (part 2). In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. pp. 409–597.
Author(s)
E. Dounias
Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Center for Evolutionary and Functional Ecology (CEFE-CNRS), 1919, route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
Photo editor
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Dounias, E., 2008. Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex Planch. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, branch with male flowers; 2, fruit.
Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman



wood in transverse section


wood in radial section


wood in tangential section