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Mostuea batesii Baker

Protologue
Dyer, Fl. trop. Afr. 4(1): 506 (1903).
Family
Loganiaceae (APG: Gelsemiaceae)
Synonyms
Mostuea stimulans A.Chev. (1946).
Origin and geographic distribution
Mostuea batesii occurs from Cameroon and the Central African Republic south to Gabon and DR Congo.
Uses
In Gabon the grated root is used to dispel sleep or as an aphrodisiac with similar action to that of Tabernanthe iboga Baill. It is consumed alone or mixed with Tabernanthe iboga; extended use may lead to cerebral troubles. In the Central African Republic a root decoction is taken as an anthelminthic by children.
Properties
Mostuea batesii contains 0.06% indole alkaloids in the leafy stems, 0.15% in the roots and 0.33% in the root bark. The root bark alkaloids are related to sempervirin and gelsemine. Subcutaneously administered root-bark extract had a mean lethal dose of 0.25 g/kg in mice, and death was preceded by a phase of hyperexcitability. In anaesthetized dogs, an intravenous dose of up to 0.10 g/kg produced hypotension followed by hypertension. A short phase of tachyardia and hyperpnoea was succeeded by cardiac and respiratory depression. A higher dose only produced hypotension.
Botany
Small shrub up to 1.5 m tall; twigs hairy when young, later glabrescent. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules hairy outside; petiole 0.5–8 mm long, hairy; blade elliptical, oblong-elliptical to oblong-ovate, 0.5–6.5 cm × 0.5–2.5 cm, base obliquely cuneate to rounded, apex acute, obtuse or rounded, often apiculate, margins entire or obscurely wavy-toothed, hairy on both sides. Inflorescence a terminal, sessile cyme on lateral branches, 1–3-flowered. Flowers bisexual, slightly zygomorphic, 5-merous, heterodistylous, almost sessile; sepals fused at base, ovate-lanceolate to ovate-linear, 2.5–6 mm long, apex awl-shaped, hairy outside; corolla white with yellow base, tube funnel-shaped 7–11 mm long, outside hairy in upper part, glabrous in lower part, inside glabrous except near the insertion of the stamens, lobes 1.5–3 mm long; stamens free, included or exserted; ovary superior, ovoid, 0.5–1 mm long, at apex with some hairs, 2-celled, style simple, shorter or longer than the stamens. Fruit a 2-lobed capsule 5.5–8 mm × 11–13 mm, hairy, medium brown, 4-valved, 2–4-seeded. Seeds plano-convex, obliquely ovate-orbicular, 5–7 mm × 4–6 mm, pale brown.
Mostuea comprises 7 species in Africa and Madagascar and 1 in northern South America.
Ecology
Mostuea batesii occurs in secondary rainforest, from sea-level up to 750 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Although the natural distribution of Mostuea batesii is restricted, it seems not to be in danger of genetic erosion.
Prospects
The active ingredients of Mostuea batesii are unknown. As related species contain interesting indole alkaloids with antitumour activity, more research into the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the compounds of Mostuea batesii seems warranted.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 1995. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 3, Families J–L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 857 pp.
• De Smet, P.A.G.M., 1996. Some ethnopharmacological notes on African hallucinogens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50: 141–146.
• Gassita, J.N., Nze Ekekang, L., De Vecchy, H., Louis, A.M., Koudogbo, B. & Ekomié, R. (Editors), 1982. Les plantes médicinales du Gabon. CENAREST, IPHAMETRA, mission ethnobotanique de l’ACCT au Gabon, 10–31 juillet 1982. 26 pp.
• Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., 1961. The Loganiaceae of Africa 2. A revision of Mostuea Didr. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 61–4. Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 1–31.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
Other references
• Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (Editor), 1980. Angiospermae: Ordnung Gentiales. Fam. Loganiaceae. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Second Edition. Band 28 b-1. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, Germany. 255 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 1998. Afrikanische Arzneipflanzen und Jagdgifte. Chemie, Pharmakologie, Toxikologie. 2nd Edition. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart, Germany. 960 pp.
• Onochie, C.F.A. & Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., 1963. Loganiaceae. In: Hepper, F.N. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 34–47.
• Raponda-Walker, A., 1953. Usages pharmaceutiques des plantes spontanées du Gabon, 2. Bulletin Institut d'Études Centrafricaines, Nouvelle série 5: 19–40.
• Raponda-Walker, A. & Sillans, R., 1961. Les plantes utiles du Gabon. Paul Lechevalier, Paris, France. 614 pp.
• Sillans, R., 1953. Plantes médicinales d’Afrique centrale. Annales pharmaceutiques françaises 11: 364–383, 456–473.
Author(s)
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
de Ruijter, A., 2007. Mostuea batesii Baker. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.