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Neotina isoneura (Radlk.) Capuron

Mém. Mus. natl. Hist. nat., sér. B, Bot. 19: 175 (1969).
Tina isoneura Radlk. (1879), Tinopsis isoneura (Radlk.) Choux (1925).
Origin and geographic distribution
Neotina isoneura is endemic to Madagascar, where it occurs widespread.
The wood of Neotina isoneura is appreciated for heavy construction. It is traded together with the wood of Tinopsis apiculata Radlk. as ‘ramaindafy’, and is suitable for flooring, bridges, mine props and railway sleepers. It is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. Bark extracts are drunk to cure gonorrhoea.
The heartwood is pale pinkish brown and distinctly demarcated from the greyish white, 3–5 cm wide sapwood. The grain is usually straight, texture medium. The wood is heavy, with a density of 900–960 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. It air dries moderately rapidly with little distortion. Boards of 2.5 cm thick dry to 12% moisture content in 2–3 months. The rates of shrinkage are high, from green to oven dry 6.1–7.4% radial and 10.0–11.2% tangential. Once dry, the wood is not stable in service.
At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 180–189 N/mm², modulus of elasticity 14,580–14,830 N/mm², compression parallel to grain 73–82 N/mm² and Chalais-Meudon side hardness 10.2–11.6. The wood is easy to work and takes a smooth finish. It is durable and quite resistant to treatment with preservatives.
The bark of Neotina isoneura contains tannins that belong to the group of condensed tannins of the proanthocyanidin type.
Monoecious small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; bole branchless for up to 10 m, up to 50 cm in diameter; bark surface pale grey; twigs glabrous. Leaves alternate, paripinnately compound with 2–5 pairs of leaflets; stipules absent; petiole 2.5–3.5 cm long, rachis 6–16 cm long; petiolules short; leaflets opposite to alternate, oblong, 6–12 cm × 2–3 cm, upper leaflets largest, obtuse at apex, margin entire, glabrous, pinnately veined with numerous lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary panicle, short-hairy. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous, small, c. 4 mm in diameter, whitish; sepals free, ovate, reflexed in fruit; petals free, smaller than sepals, with 2 lateral scales; stamens hairy; ovary superior, 2-celled, style short. Fruit a fleshy capsule up to 2 cm long, orange to red, dehiscent with 2 valves, 1-seeded. Seed obovoid, c. 1 cm long, nearly completely enclosed by a waxy, yellow to red aril.
Neotina comprises only 2 species. It resembles Molinaea, Tina and Tinopsis, but can be distinguished by its leaflets with entire margins, usually only 5 stamens and reflexed calyces in fruit. The wood of Neotina coursii Capuron resembles that of Neotina isoneura and is used for similar purposes; it is traditionally used for boat building. Neotina coursii is a shrub or small tree up to 10 m tall with usually opposite leaves, occurring in eastern Madagascar.
Neotina isoneura is found in subhumid evergreen forest, mainly at medium altitudes.
Genetic resources and breeding
Neotina isoneura is not likely to be seriously threatened because it is widespread, but monitoring it and Neotina coursii is recommended in view of the reduction in natural forest areas in Madagascar.
Knowledge on Neotina isoneura is very limited and only further study could reveal serious opportunities for more extensive use of the species.
Major references
• Boiteau, P., Boiteau, M. & Allorge-Boiteau, L., 1999. Dictionnaire des noms malgaches de végétaux. 4 Volumes + Index des noms scientifiques avec leurs équivalents malgaches. Editions Alzieu, Grenoble, France.
• Guéneau, P., Bedel, J. & Thiel, J., 1970–1975. Bois et essences malgaches. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 150 pp.
• Rakotovao, G., Rabevohitra, R., Gerard, J., Détienne, P. & Collas de Chatelperron, P., en préparation. Atlas des bois de Madagascar. FOFIFA-DRFP, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Other references
• Beaujard, P., 1988. Plantes et médecine traditionelle dans le Sud-Est de Madagascar. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 23(2–3): 165–265.
• Buerki, S., Forest, F., Acevedo-Rodriguez, P., Callmander, M.W., Nylander, J.A.A., Harrington, M., Sanmartin, I., Kupfer, P. & Alvarez, N., 2009. Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51(2): 238–258.
• Cailliez, F. & Guéneau, P., 1972. Analyse en composantes principales des propriétés technologiques des bois Malgaches. Annales des Sciences Forestières 30: 215–266.
• Capuron, R., 1969. Révision des Sapindacées de Madagascar et des Comores. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Nouvelle série, Série B, Botanique 19: 1–189.
• Debray, M., Jacquemin, H. & Razafindrambao, R., 1971. Contribution à l’inventaire des plantes médicinales de Madagascar. Travaux et Documents No 8. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 150 pp.
• Guéneau, P., 1971. Bois de Madagascar. Possibilités d’emploi. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 75 pp.
• Hegnauer, R., 1990. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Band 9. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 786 pp.
• Rabevohitra, R., 2006. Essais sylvicoles d’espèces autochtones aptes à l’afforestation et aux systèmes agroforestiers (Ranomafana/Ifanadiana). Rapport scientifique N° 822-FOFIFA/DRFP, Antananarivo, Madagascar. 22 pp.
• Vary, L.B., Lance, S.L., Hagen, C., Tsyusko, O., Glenn, T.C., Sakai, A.K. & Weller, S.G., 2009. Characterization of microsatellite loci from the Malagasy endemic, Tina striata Radlk. (Sapindaceae). Conservation Genetics 10: 1113–1115.
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Associate editors
E.A. Obeng
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2011. Neotina isoneura (Radlk.) Capuron. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Louppe, D. & Oteng-Amoako, A.A. (Editors). Prota 7(2): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 2. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
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