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Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.

Protologue
Sp. pl. 2: 982 (1753).
Family
Euphorbiaceae (APG: Phyllanthaceae)
Chromosome number
2n = 26, 52
Vernacular names
Seaside laurel, canoe weed (En).
Origin and geographic distribution
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is widespread in tropical Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. It occurs throughout the Old World tropics and subtropics.
Uses
The plant sap and leaf decoction are credited with emetic and purgative activities. In Tanzania the whole plant is pounded and the solution applied to scabies. A root decoction is taken to cure constipation, diarrhoea, lack of appetite, intestinal pain, menstrual problems, gastrointestinal disorders, testicular swelling, chest complaints and snakebites. Gastrointestinal trouble in infants is treated by giving them a root decoction of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene. Plant sap is used as nose drops to treat toothache. Ground leaves are rubbed on the skin with lemon juice as treatment for rheumatism. In Niger the plant is used as an aphrodisiac. In Somalia Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is considered poisonous.
In India Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is widely medicinally used to treat headache, bronchitis, earache and ophthalmia. Powder from dried plant material mixed with milk is drunk to treat jaundice.
In Kenya smoke from the burning plants is used to kill caterpillars in maize. Cattle will browse Phyllanthus maderaspatensis but only when green.
Production and international trade
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is of subsistence value in most parts of Africa; the plants are traded locally in market places. Commercial value is attributable to industrially produced pharmaceutical products for which different plant parts are harvested from naturally occurring plants.
Properties
Extracts of the above-ground parts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis were found to contain resins, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins, but no glycosides. The plant also contains the lignans phyllanthin and hypophyllantin, which are responsible for hepatoprotective activity, but in low concentrations.
Butanol, ethanol and water extracts of the whole plant were found to bind hepatitis B virus and E antigens. The n-hexane extract was found to have pronounced hepatoprotective activity and showed antioxidant activity and stimulation of bile production. The antioxidant activity is attributed to the phenolic compounds. The results of tests in mice clearly indicated that an ethanol extract has a protective effect against adriamycin-induced toxicity and it also showed an antioxidant effect.
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis has shown antibacterial and antifungal activities. The seeds have confirmed laxative, carminative and diuretic properties. Many of the medicinal uses of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis are related to the astringent action of tannins. Though short-term effects may be beneficial, the frequent systemic use of tannins might be dangerous, because of their antinutrient effects.
A clear deep yellow oil can be extracted from the seeds; it contains myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acids and β-sitosterol. The defatted seed cake contains a fibrous mucilage which can be hydrolyzed to galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and aldobionic acid.
Adulterations and substitutes
In India a herbal medicine called ‘Bhumyamlaki’ is sold which may be pure Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., or pure Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, or a mixture with Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster. It is marketed as a medicine especially for liver troubles.
Description
Monoecious, annual or perennial, erect to spreading, unbranched to much branched, glabrous herb up to 90(–120) cm tall; branches angular, red- or brown-tinged. Leaves arranged spirally, simple and entire; stipules asymmetrical triangular-lanceolate, up to 4 mm long, persistent; petiole c. 1 mm long; blade linear to oblanceolate, 10–30 mm × 2–7 mm, base cuneate to rounded, apex acute to rounded. Inflorescence a small axillary fascicle; female flowers solitary near the base of the branch, 1–4 male flowers and 1 female flower together towards the end of the branch. Flowers unisexual, regular; perianth lobes 6, in 2 whorls, disk with 6 free glands; male flowers with pedicel up to 1 mm long, perianth lobes elliptical, c. 1 mm long, stamens 3, c. 1 mm long, filaments fused, anthers exserted; female flowers with pedicel c. 2 mm long, perianth lobes c. 2 mm long, ovary superior, ovoid, 3-celled, styles 3, free, bifid at apex. Fruit a globose capsule, flattened at both ends, c. 3 mm in diameter, shiny greenish with red tinge, 6-seeded. Seeds trigonous, c. 1.5 mm long, dark brown, shiny.
Other botanical information
Phyllanthus is a large genus comprising about 750 species in tropical and subtropical regions, with about 150 species in mainland tropical Africa and about 60 in Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands. A subgeneric classification of Phyllanthus is in preparation. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is a variable species and several varieties have been recognized.
A few other Phyllanthus spp. have the same branching pattern with all stems and branches similar; 2 of them are also used medicinally. Phyllanthus beillei Hutch. (synonym: Phyllanthus welwitschianu s Müll.Arg. var. beillei (Hutch.) A.R.-Sm.) occurs from Guinea east to Kenya and Tanzania and throughout southern Africa. A root decoction is taken as an aphrodisiac in Kenya. Phyllanthus welwitschianus Müll.Arg. occurs in southern Africa; in Angola the leaves are used for wound dressing.
Growth and development
Plants may flower 3 months after germination of the seed.
Ecology
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis occurs in deciduous woodland, wooded savanna and grassland, on beaches and dunes, and also along streams and ponds, in cultivated and disturbed localities, from sea-level up to 1400 m altitude. It grows on a wide variety of soils, usually on heavy clay and alluvial soils of low-altitude river valleys, on river banks and in flood plains. Outside tropical Africa, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is often considered a weed. It shows a marked preference for calcareous sites in humid tropical areas.
Propagation and planting
Seeds of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis require light to germinate. Germination rates increase linearly with temperature from 15–35°C and decline from 36°C. Below 15°C and above 40°C, germination is very poor. Germination is poor under moisture stress. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis is generally grown from seed, but vegetative propagation by budding, grafting, cutting and root sprouting is possible.
Management
No information is available about cultivation methods of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis; it is rarely cultivated. All plant parts are probably only collected from the wild. Mature plants are fast growing and require little or no management once established.
Genetic resources
Neither germplasm collections nor breeding programmes are known for Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. Since it is widespread and rather common, it is not liable to genetic erosion.
Prospects
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis seems under-exploited, but it will probably continue to be regarded as an important medicinal plant species. There is no commercial seed production, although this aspect deserves more attention given the ease of propagation. Considering the many medicinal uses, there is a large scope for future research and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. A number of compounds may provide interesting leads for pharmacological evaluation and therefore merit further research. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis deserves to be part of germplasm collection.
Major references
• Bommu, P., Nanjan, C.M.J., Joghee, N.M., Nataraj, S.M. & Bhojraj, S., 2008. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis, a dietary supplement for the amelioration of adriamycin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in mice. Journal of Natural Medicine 62(2): 149–154.
• Burkill, H.M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636 pp.
• Khatoon, S., Raia, V., Rawata, A.K.S. & Mehrotra, S., 2006. Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104(1–2): 79–86.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1987. Euphorbiaceae (part 1). In: Polhill, R.M. (Editor). Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands. 407 pp.
• Unander, D.W., Webster, G.L. & Blumberg, B.S., 1990. Records of usage or assays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) l. Subgenera Isocladus, Kirganella, Cicca and Emblica. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 30: 233–264.
Other references
• Adjanohoun, E.J., Ahyi, M.R.A., Aké Assi, L., Alia, A.M., Amai, C.A., Gbile, Z.O., Johnson, C.L.A., Kakooko, Z.O., Lutakome, H.K., Morakinyo, O., Mubiru, N.K., Ogwal-Okeng, J.W. & Sofowora, E.A., 1993. Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia - contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Uganda. Scientific, Technical and Research Commission of the Organization of the African Unity (OAU/STRC). 433 pp.
• Asha, V.V., Akhila, S., Wills, J.P. & Subramoniam, A., 2004. Further studies on the antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92(1): 67–170.
• Brunel, J.F., 1987. Sur le genre Phyllanthus L. et quelques genres voisins de la tribu des Phyllantheae Dumort (Euphorbiaceae, Phyllantheae) en Afrique intertropicale et à Madagascar. PhD thesis, Laboratoire Morphologie experimentale, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France. 472 pp. + Annexes.
• Calixto, J.B., Santos, A.R., Cechinel-Filho, V. & Yunes, R.A., 1998. A review of the plants of the genus Phyllanthus: their chemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Medicinal Research Reviews 18(4): 225–258.
• CSIR, 1959. The wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Raw materials. Volume 5: H–K. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India. 332 pp.
• Kumaran, A. & Karunakaran, R.J., 2007. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT Food Science and Technology 40(2): 344–352.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1996. Euphorbiaceae, subfamilies Phyllantoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae, tribe Hippomaneae. In: Pope, G.V. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 9, part 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 1–337.
• Rizk, A.M., 1987. The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 293–326.
• Saadou, M., 1993. Les plantes médicinales du Niger: premier supplément à l’enquête ethnobotanique de 1979. Revue de Médecines et Pharmacopées Africaines 7(1): 11–24.
• Srivastava, V., Singh, M., Malasoni, R., Shanker, K., Verma, R.K., Gupta, M.M., Gupta, A.K. & Khanuja, S.P.S., 2008. Separation and quantification of lignans in Phyllanthus species by a simple chiral densitometric method. Journal of Separation Science 31: 47–55.
• Unander, D.W., 1991. Callus induction in Phyllanthus species and inhibition of viral DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase by callus extracts. Plant Cell Reports 10: 461–466.
• van Holthoon, F.L., 1999. Phyllanthus L. In: de Padua, L.S., Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(1). Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 381–392.
Sources of illustration
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1986. Euphorbiaceae. In: Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (Editors). Flora of Pakistan No 172. National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad and Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan. 170 pp.
Author(s)
A. Maroyi
Department of Biological Sciences, Bindura University of Science Education, P.O. Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Maroyi, A., 2008. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, flowering branch; 2, male flower; 3, female flower; 4, fruit.
Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin