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Phyllanthus niruroides Müll.Arg.

Protologue
Journ. Bot. 2: 331 (1864).
Family
Euphorbiaceae (APG: Phyllanthaceae)
Chromosome number
2n = 26
Origin and geographic distribution
Phyllanthus niruroides occurs from Guinea Bissau and Guinea east to Nigeria and São Tomé. It is not clear whether it also occurs in mainland Central Africa.
Uses
In Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso a decoction of the whole plant is given as a diuretic and purgative in the treatment of jaundice. With Capsicum pepper added, it is used as a wash or an enema to reduce menstrual pain. The plant sap is mixed with lemon juice and drunk to ease delivery. The strained juice of the pulped plant is given orally to treat infant bronchitis, and is applied as ear drops to ease pain caused by otitis. It is one of several plants that was macerated and sprinkled on smallpox pustules. In Ghana the whole plant is used in the treatment of malaria.
Properties
Niruroidine, a norsecurinine-type alkaloid has been isolated from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruroides collected in DR Congo, but the presence of Phyllanthus niruroides in DR Congo has not yet been confirmed by botanists.
Botany
Monoecious, annual, erect, glabrous herb up to 25 cm tall, few-branched. Leaves alternate, distichous and crowded along lateral twigs, simple and entire; stipules lanceolate, reddish, 0.5–2 mm long; petiole c. 0.5 mm long; blade oblong, 2.5–12.5 mm × 1.5–4.5 mm, base rounded, apex obtuse. Flowers axillary, male flowers 2–3 per axil at the base of branches, female flowers solitary towards apex of branches. Flowers unisexual, pale green; perianth lobes 5; male flowers with pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, stamens 3, filaments fused; female flowers with pedicel 1.5–2.5 mm long, disk cup-shaped, 5-lobed, ovary superior, ovoid, warty, 3-celled, styles 3, free, deeply 2-fid at apex. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule 2–3 mm in diameter, hanging, up to 6-seeded. Seeds c. 1 mm long, with 13–16 transverse ridges.
Phyllanthus is a large genus comprising about 750 species in tropical and subtropical regions, with about 150 species in mainland tropical Africa and about 60 in Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands. As the annual herbs in Phyllanthus are morphologically close, it is not easy to identify them correctly and as a result there is a lot of confusion. Records of Phyllanthus niruroides for eastern and southern Africa most probably refer to Phyllanthus taylorianus J.E.Brunel ex Radcl.-Sm. Several other West and Central African Phyllanthus species are used medicinally. Phyllanthus sublanatus Schumach. & Thonn. is an annual herb distributed from Guinea east to Nigeria. In Benin a decoction of fresh leaves is applied externally to cure skin rash, a decoction of the whole plant is drunk to treat bleeding gums and diarrhoea, and pulverized, roasted, leafy twigs are swallowed to stop vomiting. Phyllanthus diandrus Pax is a poorly known shrub from Cameroon, Gabon and Congo. A leaf decoction is drunk to correct a rapid and irregular heartbeat. Phyllanthus profusus N.E.Br. is a shrub occurring from Guinea east to Ghana. Sap from the cut stems is used as eye drops to treat sore eyes. The fruit is edible. Phyllanthus profusus is mentioned in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as vulnerable due to habitat loss.
Ecology
Phyllanthus niruroides occurs in wet grassland in deciduous woodland. It also occurs on waste ground and in disturbed localities, from 900–1500(–2300) m altitude. As a weed it is especially frequent in sorghum on dark brown, heavy soils.
Genetic resources and breeding
As Phyllanthus niruroides is common, also as a weed, there is no concern about genetic erosion.
Prospects
For a good understanding of the prospects of Phyllanthus niruroides and related species an unambiguous taxonomical classification is required, especially for West and Central Africa. Such a classification is needed as a basis for meaningful pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.
Major references
• Brunel, J.F., 1987. Sur le genre Phyllanthus L. et quelques genres voisins de la tribu des Phyllantheae Dumort (Euphorbiaceae, Phyllantheae) en Afrique intertropicale et à Madagascar. PhD thesis, Laboratoire Morphologie experimentale, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France. 472 pp. + Annexes.
• Kerharo, J. & Bouquet, A., 1950. Plantes médicinales et toxiques de la Côte d’Ivoire - Haute-Volta. Vigot Frères, Paris, France. 291 pp.
• Unander, D.W., Webster, G.L. & Blumberg, B.S., 1991. Uses and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae): a compilation. 2. The subgenus Phyllanthus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 34: 97–133.
Other references
• Babady-Bila, Gedris, T.E. & Herz, W., 1996. Niruroidine, a norsecurinine-type alkaloid from Phyllanthus niruroides. Phytochemistry 41(5): 1441–1443.
• Burkill, H.M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636 pp.
• Keay, R.W.J., 1958. Euphorbiaceae. In: Keay, R.W.J. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1, part 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 364–423.
• Köhler, I., Jenett-Siems, K., Kraft, C., Siems, K., Abbiw, D., Bienzle, U. & Eich, E., 2002. Herbal remedies traditionally used against malaria in Ghana: bioassay-guided fractionation of Microglossa pyrifolia (Asteraceae). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 57(11–12): 1022–1027.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1996. Notes on African Euphorbiaceae XXX: Phyllanthus (V) & c. Kew Bulletin 51(2): 301–331.
• Stäuble, N., 1986. Etude ethnobotanique des Euphorbiacées d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 16: 23–103.
Author(s)
N.S. Alvarez Cruz
Unidad de Medio Ambiente, Delegación del CITMA, Cor. Legon 268 / Henry Reeve y Carlos Roloff, Sancti Spiritus 60100, Cuba


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Alvarez Cruz, N.S., 2008. Phyllanthus niruroides Müll.Arg. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.