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Phylloxylon perrieri Drake

Protologue
Grandid., Hist. phys. Madagascar 30: 192 (1903).
Family
Papilionaceae (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae, Fabaceae)
Origin and geographic distribution
Phylloxylon perrieri is endemic to western Madagascar, where it occurs from near Analalava south to Morondava.
Uses
The wood, known as ‘harahara’, is traditionally used for house construction, furniture, agricultural implements and tool handles, but it is also suitable for long-lasting poles and heavy-duty flooring. It is used as fuelwood and for making charcoal. The bark serves as a fish poison.
Properties
The heartwood is pale reddish brown and distinctly demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. The wood is very heavy, very hard and elastic.
Adulterations and substitutes
The wood is similar to that of other Phylloxylon spp. and is known under the same Malagasy name. It resembles that of Dialium unifoliolatum Capuron from eastern Madagascar, although the wood of the latter species is less hard. The wood of Humbertia madagascariensis Lam. is also very heavy and used for similar purposes.
Description
Deciduous shrub or small tree up to 12 m tall; bole up to 50 cm in diameter; bark pale brown to grey, flaking off in fibrous pieces; stems flattened, leathery, greyish green, much-branched, internodes leaf-like, linear, 10–40 cm × 2–7(–10) mm, sharply pointed at apex, with buds and/or leaves along the margins, glabrous; older stems becoming rounded. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules minute; petiole 2–6 mm long; blade elliptical to ovate, 3–6(–7.5) cm × 1–4(–5) cm, obtuse to rounded at base, acute to obtuse at apex, leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined; sometimes leaves absent. Inflorescence a few-flowered raceme produced from the buds on the leaf-like stem margins, 5–13 mm long; bracts numerous on the axis, broadly ovate. Flowers bisexual, papilionaceous; pedicel 2–3.5 mm long; calyx shallowly cup-shaped, c. 2 mm long, with short teeth, minutely brown hairy; corolla pink to pale purple, with narrowly elliptical standard c. 13 mm long, with white basal spot, wings 13–16 mm long, keel 11–13 mm long; stamens 10, 9 united into a long sheath 6–7 mm long and 1 free; ovary superior, narrowly oblong to linear, style curved upward. Fruit a curved spindle-shaped pod 3.5–6.5 cm × 1.5–2 cm, with beak at apex, leathery, eventually dehiscent, 1(–2)-seeded. Seed ellipsoid, c. 16 mm × 11 mm.
Other botanical information
Phylloxylon comprises 7 species, all endemic to Madagascar. It belongs to the tribe Indigofereae, in which it is considered to be basal because it shows many primitive character-states. The leaf-like young stems are characteristic in 4 species, but the other 3 have narrow and rounded young stems.
Anatomy
Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):
Growth rings: 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 10: vessels in radial multiples of 4 or more common; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 24: intervessel pits minute ( 4 μm); 25: intervessel pits small (4–7 μm); 29: vestured pits; 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; 40: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 50 μm; 41: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 50–100 μm; 50: 100 vessels per square milllimetre; 58: gums and other deposits in heartwood vessels. Tracheids and fibres: 61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits; 66: non-septate fibres present; 70: fibres very thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: 75: axial parenchyma absent or extremely rare; 78: axial parenchyma scanty paratracheal; 91: two cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: 97: ray width 1–3 cells; 104: all ray cells procumbent; 116: 12 rays per mm. Storied structure: 118: all rays storied; 120: axial parenchyma and/or vessel elements storied. Mineral inclusions: 136: prismatic crystals present; 138: prismatic crystals in procumbent ray cells.
(L.N. Banak, H. Beeckman & P.E. Gasson)
Growth and development
The growth is very slow. Phylloxylon perrieri usually flowers from September to November.
Ecology
Phylloxylon perrieri occurs in deciduous forest and woodland, from sea-level up to 600 m altitude. It usually occurs on sandy soils, but can also be found on limestone.
Harvesting
Trees are difficult to fell with traditional equipment because of the very hard wood.
Genetic resources
Phylloxylon perrieri is classified as an endangered species in the IUCN Red list. Although it is fairly widespread in western Madagascar, it is uncommon because of selective felling for its timber and fuelwood, and because of severe fragmentation of the natural vegetation in which it occurs.
Prospects
The prospects for Phylloxylon perrieri and other Phylloxylon species as timber trees of commercial importance are very poor because of the often small size of the bole, their uncommon occurrence and their slow growth. Locally, they will remain important for the production of durable posts and implements. However, attention should be given to adequate protection.
Major references
• du Puy, D.J., Labat, J.N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J., 2002. The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 750 pp.
• du Puy, D.J., Labat, J.N. & Schrire, B.D., 1995. A revision of Phylloxylon (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Indigofereae). Kew Bulletin 50(3): 477–494.
Other references
• du Puy, D. & Labat, H., 1998. Phylloxylon perrieri. In: IUCN. 2007 Red list of threatened species. [Internet] http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed January 2008.
• Guéneau, P., Bedel, J. & Thiel, J., 1970–1975. Bois et essences malgaches. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 150 pp.
• InsideWood, undated. [Internet] http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search/. Accessed May 2007.
• Kerharo, J., Guichard, F. & Bouquet, A., 1961. Les végétaux ichtyotoxiques (poisons de pêche), 2ème partie : inventaire des poisons de pêche. Bulletins et Mémoires de l’École Nationale de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Dakar 9: 355–386.
Sources of illustration
• du Puy, D.J., Labat, J.N. & Schrire, B.D., 1995. A revision of Phylloxylon (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Indigofereae). Kew Bulletin 50(3): 477–494.
Author(s)
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
J.R. Cobbinah
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Photo editor
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., 2008. Phylloxylon perrieri Drake. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, leafy twig; 2, flowering twig; 3, twig with fruit.
Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin



wood in transverse section


wood in tangential section


wood in radial section