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Pierreodendron africanum (Hook.f.) Little

Protologue
Phytologia 3: 156 (1949).
Family
Simaroubaceae
Synonyms
Mannia africana Hook.f. (1862), Pierreodendron kerstingii (Engl.) Little (1949), Quassia grandifolia (Engl.) Noot. (1962).
Origin and geographic distribution
Pierreodendron africanum occurs from Côte d’Ivoire east to DR Congo and south to Angola.
Uses
Throughout its distribution area Pierreodendron africanum is used as an insecticide and rat poison. In Nigeria the fruits are pounded, mixed with boiled yam and palm oil and used as a bait to kill rats. Whole seeds with salt added are equally efficient at killing rats. The fruit peel and leaves are used as a tonic and the seed oil as a lotion against lice.
Properties
The stem bark of Pierreodendron africanum contains quassinoids with antineoplastic properties, e.g. dehydroailanthinone and glaucarubinone. The main quassinoid compound is glaucarubin. The stem bark also contains indole alkaloids, canthine-6-one alkaloids, which have anticancer and antimicrobial properties.
An alcohol extract of the stem bark showed significant activity in vivo against leukaemia of mice and human throat cancer cells in vitro. Oral application of a chloroform extract of stems and roots showed good results against avian malaria in poultry.
Botany
Monoecious, straggling tree up to 30 m tall; bark rough with square scales. Leaves alternate, in tufts at ends of branches, up to 1 m long, imparipinnately compound with 5–15 pairs of leaflets; stipules absent; petiolules c. 4 mm long; leaflets almost opposite, entire, lanceolate to elliptical, 8–30 cm × 3–9 cm, base rounded, asymmetrical, very shortly and abruptly acuminate and often thickened at apex, leathery, slightly hairy in young leaves. Inflorescence a thyrse up to 40 cm long. Flowers unisexual or bisexual, regular, 5-merous; calyx lobes c. 1.5 mm long; petals free, oblong, 0.5–1 cm long, red; stamens 10–15(–18), free; ovary superior, consisting of 5 free carpels. Fruit an oblong-ellipsoid drupe, c. 7 cm × 4.5 cm, yellow, fibrous, woody, 1-seeded.
Pierreodendron comprises a single species. Pierreodendron kerstingii (Engl.) Little was distinguished mainly based on the number of stamens, but it is now considered a synonym of Pierreodendron africanum. However, taxonomic studies of this poorly known genus are needed because the existence of cryptic species has been suggested on the basis of the strangely versatile habitat.
Ecology
Pierreodendron africanum occurs in wet evergreen and dry deciduous forest, with comparatively few trees in intermediate types of forest.
Management
The stem bark and fruits of Pierreodendron africanum are harvested from the wild.
Genetic resources and breeding
Pierreodendron africanum is widely distributed but rare throughout its range and therefore it is considered vulnerable to genetic erosion.
Prospects
The antitumour properties of Pierreodendron africanum will continue to attract attention of pharmacologists.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 2000. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 5, Families S–Z, Addenda. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 686 pp.
• Guo, Z., Vangapandu, S., Sindelar, R.W., Walker, L.A. & Sindelar, R.D., 2005. Biologically active quassinoids and their chemistry: potential leads for drug design. Current Medicinal Chemistry 12(2): 173–190.
• Kenfack, D., Thomas, D.W., Chuyong, G. & Condit, R., 2007. Rarity and abundance in a diverse African forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 2045–2074.
• Kupchan, S.M. & Lacadie, J.A., 1975. Dehydroailanthinone, a new antileukemic quassinoid from Pierreodendron kerstingii. Journal of Organic Chemistry 40(5): 654–657.
• Vanhaelen-Fastré, R., Vanhaelen, M., Diallo, B. & Breyne, H., 1990. Canthin-6-one alkaloids from Pierreodendron africanum stem barks. Planta Medica 56(2): 241–242.
Other references
• Adomou, A.C., 2005. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin: implications for biogeography and conservation. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. 136 pp.
• Ampofo, S.A. & Waterman, P.G., 1985. Aurantiamide acetate, quassinoids, and a canthinone from the stem bark of Pierreodendron kerstingii. Journal of Natural Products 48(5): 863–864.
• Gilbert, G., 1958. Simaroubaceae. In: Robyns, W., Staner, P., Demaret, F., Germain, R., Gilbert, G., Hauman, L., Homès, M., Jurion, F., Lebrun, J., Vanden Abeele, M. & Boutique, R. (Editors). Flore du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes. Volume 7. Institut National pour l’Étude Agronomique du Congo belge, Brussels, Belgium. pp. 119–131.
• Hawthorne, W. & Jongkind, C., 2006. Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 1023 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Nooteboom, H.P., 1962. Generic delimitation in Simaroubaceae tribus Simaroubeae and a conspectus of the genus Quassia L. Blumea 11(2): 509–528.
• Polonsky, J., 1973. Quassinoid bitter principles. Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe 30: 101–150.
• Valeriote, F.A., Corbett, T.H., Grieco, P.A., Moher, E.D., Collins, J.L. & Fleck, T.J., 1998. Anticancer activity of glaucarubinone analogues. Oncology Research 10(4): 201–208.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2008. Pierreodendron africanum (Hook.f.) Little. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.