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Pouteria aningeri Baehni

Protologue
Candollea 9: 289 (1942).
Family
Sapotaceae
Chromosome number
2n = 28
Synonyms
Aningeria robusta (A.Chev.) Aubrév. & Pellegr. (1935).
Vernacular names
Aningeria (En). Aningré blanc, aniégré blanc (Fr).
Origin and geographic distribution
Pouteria aningeri occurs in the forest zone from Guinea Bissau east to Cameroon.
Uses
The wood (trade names: aningré, aniégré, anigré, asanfena, asanfona) is especially recommended for high-quality sliced veneer. It is also used for light carpentry, interior joinery, high-class furniture and moulding. The fruit pulp is edible.
Production and international trade
Commercial exploitation of aningré wood began around 1965. Pouteria aningeri is exported as sawn wood and veneer from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana in considerable quantities in mixed consignments with Pouteria altissima (A.Chev.) Baehni. In 2001 the export of ‘aniégré’ veneer from Côte d’Ivoire was 15,000 m³ with an average price of US$ 769/m³. From Ghana 19,000 m³ ‘asanfena’ veneer was exported in 2002 (average price of US$ 923/m³), 14,000 m³ in 2003 (average price of US$ 1243/m³), and 13,000 m³ in 2004 (average price of US$ 1164/m³). Cameroon exported 1000 m³ ‘anigré’ veneer in 2003 with an average price of US$ 1864/m³.
Properties
The heartwood is creamy white to pale pinkish brown and indistinctly demarcated from the 3–6 cm wide sapwood. The grain is straight, sometimes slightly interlocked, texture fine. The wood is lustrous.
The wood is moderately light, with a density of 540–590 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. Drying usually does not cause problems, but there is a slight risk of distortion and checking and a tendency to blue stain, especially in early stages of air drying. The shrinkage rates are moderate, from green to oven dry 3.9–4.1% radial and 6.7–7.6% tangential. Once dry, the wood is moderately stable in service.
At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 93–130 N/mm², modulus of elasticity 11,100 N/mm², compression parallel to grain 52–57 N/mm², shear 6.8–9.5 N/mm², cleavage 16 N/mm and Chalais-Meudon hardness 2.6.
The wood contains about 0.3% silica and consequently the blunting effect on saws and cutting tools is high. Stellite-tipped sawteeth and tungsten-carbide tools are recommended. The nailing and screwing properties are good, and the wood stains, paints and glues well. The slicing properties are good, and excellent veneer can be produced. The wood is not durable and liable to attacks by fungi, termites and dry-wood borers. It is fairly permeable to preservatives.
Adulterations and substitutes
The wood of some Chrysophyllum spp. (e.g. Chrysophyllum giganteum A.Chev.) closely resembles that of Pouteria and is sometimes traded under the same name, e.g. ‘aniégré’, in Côte d’Ivoire.
Description
Large tree up to 40 m tall; bole up to 150 cm in diameter, branchless for up to 25 m, straight and cylindrical, with triangular, often winged and branched buttresses up to 3 m high; bark surface grey with whitish patches, fissured, inner bark fibrous, reddish brown, exuding latex; crown dense, dark green; young branches densely hairy. Leaves arranged spirally, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole c. 1 cm long, silky hairy; blade elliptical to ovate-oblong, 8–15 cm × 4–6 cm, slightly cuneate to rounded at base, rounded to very shortly acuminate at apex, densely reddish brown pubescent below, with glandular translucent dots, pinnately veined with (10–)15–20 pairs of lateral veins. Flowers in fascicles in the axils of fallen leaves, bisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel c. 3 mm long; sepals free, ovate, c. 4 mm long, pubescent outside; corolla with c. 3 mm long tube and rounded lobes c. 1.5 mm long, hairy at margins, creamy white; stamens inserted halfway up the corolla tube, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, globose, long-hairy, 5-celled, style c. 2 mm long, stigma 5-lobed. Fruit a globose berry 1.5–2 cm long, becoming red when ripe, finely hairy, 1-seeded. Seed ellipsoid, c. 1.5 cm × 1 cm, dark brown, with very large scar. Seedling with hypogeal germination; hypocotyl 0.5–1 cm long, epicotyl 7–9 cm long, hairy; cotyledons thick and fleshy; first two leaves opposite, subsequent ones alternate.
Other botanical information
Pouteria is pantropical and comprises approximately 320 species, about 200 of them in tropical America, 120 in tropical Asia and only 6 in Africa. The African species were classified in the genera Aningeria and Malacantha, but both have been included in Pouteria. Pouteria has been subdivided into 9 sections. The African species belong to section Rivicoa, together with some American species including the well-known fruit tree Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni (canistel or yellow sapote).
The timber of Pouteria spp. is sometimes confused with that of Chrysophyllum spp., but the latter genus differs in the absence of translucent dots in the leaves and fruits containing several seeds. Pouteria altissima differs from Pouteria aningeri in its leaves being glabrous below. However, the two species are often confused and their wood mixed in the timber trade.
Pouteria superba (Vermoesen) L.Gaut. (synonyms: Malacantha superba Vermoesen, Aningeria superba (Vermoesen) A.Chev.), described from south-western DR Congo (Bas-Congo), closely resembles Pouteria aningeri. It has a straight bole branchless for up to 25 m and up to 100 cm in diameter, with large buttresses, and the wood is similar to that of Pouteria aningeri and probably also traded internationally in small amounts.
Anatomy
Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):
Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23?: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; 31: vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits rounded or angular; 32: vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple: pits horizontal (scalariform, gash-like) to vertical (palisade); (33: vessel-ray pits of two distinct sizes or types in the same ray cell); 41: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 50–100 μm; 47: 5–20 vessels per square millimetre. Tracheids and fibres: 61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits; 66: non-septate fibres present; 69: fibres thin- to thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: (77: axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates); 86: axial parenchyma in narrow bands or lines up to three cells wide; (87: axial parenchyma reticulate); 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand; 93: eight (5–8) cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: 97: ray width 1–3 cells; 107: body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2–4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells; (108: body ray cells procumbent with over 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells); 116: 12 rays per mm. Mineral inclusions: (159: silica bodies present); (160: silica bodies in ray cells); (161: silica bodies in axial parenchyma cells).
(P. Mugabi, A.A. Oteng-Amoako & P. Baas)
Growth and development
Germination takes 2–3 weeks, and initial growth is slow. In Mopri forest (Côte d’Ivoire) during a period of 14 years (1978–1992), the annual growth in diameter of trees in diameter class 10–70 cm was 2.8 mm in non-disturbed forest and 4.4 mm after chemical thinning. The annual growth in diameter was 1–2 mm faster for trees in diameter class 40–70 cm than for thinner ones. In Côte d’Ivoire Pouteria aningeri flowers in February–April and ripe fruits can be found in April–May. In Ghana the tree has a deciduous period in February–March, with flowering taking place in the same period; fruits are ripe in March–April. The fruits are eaten by birds and chimpanzees, which may disperse the seeds. Pouteria aningeri regenerates abundantly.
Ecology
In Ghana Pouteria aningeri occurs in semi-deciduous forest and is locally common. In Côte d’Ivoire and Cameroon it is reportedly most abundant in the transition zone between semi-deciduous forest and humid evergreen forest. Pouteria aningeri is susceptible to fire; after a fire in a forest in Côte d’Ivoire 50% of the trees died within 6 years.
Propagation and planting
Seedlings are classified as non-pioneer light demanders. Although they may be very abundant around parent trees, further development depends on the presence of gaps in the forest canopy. The 1000-seed weight is 700–800 g.
Management
Burning negatively affects regeneration of Pouteria aningeri; in Ghana all tree sizes were more abundant in unburned than in burned forest. Although seedlings prefer some openings in the forest canopy for proper development, larger-scale logging operations in the forest negatively affect regeneration.
Handling after harvest
Logs should be extracted from the forest as soon as possible after felling or directly treated with preservatives as they are liable to blue stain. Studies in Ghana showed that the strength properties of branchwood of Pouteria aningeri compared favourably with those of bolewood and that larger branches (15–30 cm in diameter), which are usually regarded as waste, can be sawn for structural material. Assessments of sliced veneer recovery of Pouteria aningeri logs in Ghana showed 30–34% recovery, which means that the veneer mills generate a lot of waste. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by wood dust of Pouteria aningeri have been recorded in workers.
Genetic resources
Although Pouteria aningeri is less widespread than Pouteria altissima, it is locally common in West Africa, e.g. in Côte d’Ivoire and in Ghana, where it is more common than the latter species. However, it is heavily exploited in both countries, and monitoring of the populations is recommended.
Prospects
In recent years Pouteria aningeri has become an important timber tree, particularly for veneer production, in some West African countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana). Several characteristics (favourable wood properties, good regeneration) indicate that it may uphold its importance if it is not too heavily exploited. Research should therefore focus on methods of sustainable exploitation. Studies in Ghana showed that there is still scope to improve yield and quality of Pouteria aningeri veneer and sawn wood by utilizing branchwood and optimal production techniques.
Major references
• Aubréville, A., 1964. Sapotacées. Flore du Cameroun. Volume 2. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. 143 pp.
• Bertault, J.-G., 1982. Evolution de la surface terrière et de l’accroissement de la circonférence pour quatre essences du dispositif Sodefor de Mopri: aniégré (Aningeria robusta), lotofa (Sterculia rhinopetala), bossé (Guarea cedrata), ba (Celtis mildbraedii). Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 26 pp.
• Durrieu de Madron, L., Favrichon, V., Dupuy, B., Bar-Hen, A., Houde, L. & Maître, H.-F., 1998. Croissance et productivité en forêt dense humide: bilan des expérimentations dans le dispositif de Mopri, Côte d’Ivoire. Document Forafri 3. Cirad, Montpellier, France. 73 pp.
• Hawthorne, W.D., 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Tropical Forestry Papers 29. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. 345 pp.
• Normand, D., 1970. Les aniégré, Sapotacées de Côte d’Ivoire et leurs bois. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 134: 3–13.
• Okai, R., Frimpong Mensah, K. & Yeboah, D., 2004. Characterization of strength properties of branchwood and stemwood of some tropical hardwood species. Wood Science and Technology 38(2): 163–171.
• Takahashi, A., 1978. Compilation of data on the mechanical properties of foreign woods (part 3) Africa. Shimane University, Matsue, Japan, 248 pp.
• Voorhoeve, A.G., 1979. Liberian high forest trees. A systematic botanical study of the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees, with reference to numerous related species. Agricultural Research Reports 652, 2nd Impression. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands. 416 pp.
Other references
• Adjei-Sakyi, E., 2000. Yield maximization of sliced veneer: a case study. MSc Wood Technology degree thesis, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 49 pp.
• Agyapong, A.K., 2000. Yield and quality improvements of sliced veneer (a case study). MSc Wood Technology degree thesis, Department of Wood Technology and Management, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 133 pp.
• Aubréville, A., 1959. La flore forestière de la Côte d’Ivoire. Deuxième édition révisée. Tome troisième. Publication No 15. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 334 pp.
• Bertault, J.-G., Miézan, K., Dupuy, B., Durrieu de Madron, L. & Amsallem, I., 1999. Croissance et productivité en forêt dense humide après incendie: le dispositif de la Téné, Côte d’Ivoire (1978–1993). Document Forafri 20. Cirad-Forêt, Montpellier, France. 67pp.
• Chudnoff, M., 1980. Tropical timbers of the world. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No 607, Washington D.C., United States. 826 pp.
• CIRAD Forestry Department, 2003. Aningre. [Internet] Tropix 5.0. http://tropix.cirad.fr/ afr/aningre.pdf. Accessed August 2006.
• de la Mensbruge, G., 1966. La germination et les plantules des essences arborées de la forêt dense humide de la Côte d’Ivoire. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 389 pp.
• Durand, P., 1983. Aniégrés et longhis: étude comparative de leurs propriétés technologiques. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 29 pp.
• Garces Sotillos, M.M., Blanco Carmona, J.G., Juste Picon, S., Rodriguez Gaston, P., Perez Gimenez, R. & Alonso Gil, L., 1995. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by mukali wood dust (Aningeria robusta). Journal of the Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology 5(2): 113–114.
• Gérard, J., Edi Kouassi, A., Daigremont, C., Détienne, P., Fouquet, D. & Vernay, M., 1998. Synthèse sur les caractéristiques technologiques des principaux bois commerciaux africains. Document Forafri 11. Cirad, Montpellier, France. 185 pp.
• InsideWood, undated. [Internet] http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search/. Accessed May 2007.
• Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody plants of Ghana, with special reference to their uses. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom. 868 pp.
• ITTO, 2006. Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation 2005. International Timber Trade Organisation, Yokohama, Japan. 214 pp.
• Ofori, J. & Appiah, J.K., 1998. Some drying characteristics of five Ghanaian lesser-known wood species. Ghana Journal of Forestry 6: 19–27.
• Pennington, T.D., 1991. The genera of Sapotaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom and the New York Botanical Garden, New York, United States. 295 pp.
• Taylor C.J., 1960. Synecology and sylviculture in Ghana. Thomas Nelson and Sons, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 418 pp.
• Vermoesen, C., 1923. Manuel des essences forestières de la région équatoriale et du Mayombe. Brussels, Belgium. 282 pp.
• Yeboah, D., 2000. Mechanical properties of branchwood of Terminalia ivorensis and Aningeria robusta. MSc Wood Technology degree thesis, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 70 pp.
Sources of illustration
• Aubréville, A., 1964. Sapotacées. Flore du Cameroun. Volume 2. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. 143 pp.
• Normand, D., 1970. Les aniégré, Sapotacées de Côte d’Ivoire et leurs bois. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 134: 3–13.
Author(s)
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
J.R. Cobbinah
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Photo editor
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., 2007. Pouteria aningeri Baehni. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, base of bole; 2, leafy twig; 3, flower; 4, fruit; 5, seeds.
Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman



base of bole


bark


bark and slash


leaves and fruits