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Securinega capuronii Leandri

Protologue
Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, sér. B, Biol. Vég. 8: 235 (1957).
Family
Euphorbiaceae (APG: Phyllanthaceae)
Origin and geographic distribution
Securinega capuronii is endemic to south-western Madagascar.
Uses
A stem bark decoction is taken to treat chronic bronchitis and cough, and a leaf decoction is taken to treat malaria. A decoction of the twig bark is taken to treat diarrhoea.
The pinkish wood is soft and elastic and is used to make railway sleepers.
Botany
Dioecious shrub or small tree up to 4 m tall; bark reddish to grey; young branches shortly hairy. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules oblong to obovate, c. 2 mm long, deciduous; petiole up to 2 mm long; blade obovate, c. 15 mm × 7 mm, base cuneate to rounded, apex rounded, papery, glabrous. Inflorescence an axillary fascicle, 6–10-flowered in male plants, few-flowered in female plants; bracts 1–3 mm long, brown. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous, small; sepals c. 1.5 mm long, slightly unequal, ciliate; petals absent; male flowers sessile, stamens 7–8, free, exserted, filaments 1.5–2 mm long, rudimentary ovary ending in ciliate style; female flowers with pedicel 1–3 mm long, ovary superior, ovoid, 3-celled, style c. 1 mm long, branching into 3 stigmas, each 2-lobed, spread horizontally. Fruit a slightly 3-lobed capsule, reddish brown to yellowish brown, up to 6-seeded.
Securinega capuronii flowers in September.
Securinega comprises 5 species in Madagascar and the Mascarene islands. Several other Securinega species have similar medicinal uses to those of Securinega capuronii. A stem bark decoction of Securinega antsingyensis Leandri or Securinega seyrigii Leandri is taken to treat severe diarrhoea with fever. The wood of Securinega seyrigii is hard and heavy but easily workable, and used for boat and house construction.
Ecology
Securinega capuronii is common in bushland at low to medium altitudes.
Genetic resources and breeding
As Securinega capuronii is relatively common in its distribution area, it is probably not threatened.
Prospects
The bark of Securinega capuronii and related species is used to treat severe diarrhoea. As no chemical or pharmacological research has been done, it is strongly recommended that the pharmacology of this species be investigated.
Major references
• Boiteau, P., Boiteau, M. & Allorge-Boiteau, L., 1999. Dictionnaire des noms malgaches de végétaux. 4 Volumes + Index des noms scientifiques avec leurs équivalents malgaches. Editions Alzieu, Grenoble, France.
• Debray, M., Jacquemin, H. & Razafindrambao, R., 1971. Contribution à l’inventaire des plantes médicinales de Madagascar. Travaux et Documents No 8. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 150 pp.
• Leandri, J., 1958. Euphorbiacées (Euphorbiaceae). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (plantes vasculaires), famille 111. Firmin-Didot et cie., Paris, France. 209 pp.
Other references
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Rakotovao, G., 1984. Caractéristiques physiques et technologiques de quelques bois de Madagascar. Archives du FOFIFA /CENRADERU 1: 100–112.
• Rakotovao, G., 1984. Etat des connaissances actuelles en matières de préservation du bois à Madagascar. Archives du FOFIFA/CENRADERU 1: 136–150.
• Ralantonirina, D., 1993. Aperçu sur les plantes médicinales dans le sud de Madagascar : étude faite sur les adultes dans le périmètre de la réserve spéciale de Beza - Mahafaly. Thèse pour l’obtention du grade de Docteur en médecine, Etablissement d’Enseignement Supérieur des Sciences de la Santé, Faculté de Médecine, Université d’Antananarivo, Madagascar. 95 pp.
• Wurdack, K.J., Hoffmann, P., Samuel, R., de Bruijn, A., van der Bank, M. & Chase, M.W., 2004. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Phyllanthaceae (Phyllanthoideae pro parte, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) using plastid rbcL DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 91(11): 1882–1900.
Author(s)
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Schmelzer, G.H., 2007. Securinega capuronii Leandri. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.