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Stachyanthus occidentalis (Keay & J.Miège) Boutique

Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat 29: 431 (1959).
Chromosome number
2n = 40
Neostachyanthus occidentalis Keay & J.Miège (1955).
Origin and geographic distribution
Stachyanthus occidentalis is distributed from Côte d’Ivoire to Nigeria, but has not been recorded for Togo.
In Ghana the stems are locally used for tying in construction.
Dioecious, shrubby liana up to 10 m long; stem very thin, 5–6(–12) mm in diameter, rusty brown; branchlets sparingly pubescent or glabrous. Leaves alternate, simple, entire; stipules absent; petiole sparingly pubescent or glabrous; blade elliptical-ovate to oblong-obovate, 9–20 cm × 4–10 cm, base obtuse, rounded or cordate, apex acuminate, midvein and main lateral veins yellow or orange beneath. Inflorescence a raceme 15–30 cm long. Flowers 4–5-merous, greenish white; petals 4–5, c. 0.5 mm long, fused at the base; petals c. 3 mm long; male flowers with 4–5 stamens with yellow anthers, ovary reduced; female flowers with superior, 1-locular ovary. Fruit c. 1 cm long, flattened, with caducous hairs, red-orange when ripe, with persistent calyx, pulp fleshy, 1-seeded. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Stachyanthus comprises c. 5 species, distributed in tropical Africa.
The lianescent branches of Stachyanthus occidentalis may be prolongations of the juvenile, erect stems, but mostly they develop from stolons arising from the axils of the cotyledons or the first leaves of the juvenile plant. Stachyanthus occidentalis flowers in February–October, and fruits in July–February.
Stachyanthus occidentalis occurs in semi-deciduous forest, forest swamps, savanna, along dams and roads, in farm regrowth, and sometimes as a weed; it is locally common.
Genetic resources and breeding
Stachyanthus occidentalis has a restricted distribution, but it is locally common and present in a range of habitats, including disturbed locations.
Stachyanthus occidentalis will probably remain of occasional local use only.
Major references
• Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (Editors), 2006. Flore analytique du Bénin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. 1034 pp.
• Burkill, H.M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636 pp.
• Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody plants of Ghana, with special reference to their uses. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom. 868 pp.
• Keay, R.W.J., 1958. Icacinaceae. In: Keay, R.W.J. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1, part 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 636–644.
• Keay, R.W.J. & Miège, J., 1955. Neostachyanthus occidentalis Keay et Miège: nouvelle espèce d’Icacinacée d’Afrique Occidentale. Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’Etat (Bruxelles) 25(4): 271–279.
Other references
• Cremers, G., 1974. Architecture de quelques lianes d’Afrique tropicale. 2. Candollea 29: 57–110.
• Hallé, F., Oldeman, R.A.A. & Tomlinson, P.B., 1978. Tropical trees and forests: an architectural analysis. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 441 pp.
• Kokou, K., Batawila, K., Akoegninou, A. & Akpagana, K., 2000. Analyse morpho-structurale et diversité floristique des îlots de forêt protegés dan la plaine côtiere du sud du Togo. Etudes de la flore et la végétation de Burkina Faso 5: 33–48.
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
E.G. Achigan Dako
PROTA Network Office Africa, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), P.O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

Correct citation of this article:
Brink, M., 2011. Stachyanthus occidentalis (Keay & J.Miège) Boutique. In: Brink, M. & Achigan-Dako, E.G. (Editors). Prota 16: Fibres/Plantes à fibres. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild