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Suregada zanzibariensis Baill.

Protologue
Adansonia 1: 254 (1861).
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Vernacular names
Woodland suregada (En). Mdimu msitu (Sw).
Origin and geographic distribution
Suregada zanzibariensis is distributed in the coastal belt from Somalia south to South Africa and in Madagascar.
Uses
In Ulanga, Tanzania, a root and stem bark extract is drunk to cure ankylostomiasis, which is caused by parasitic hookworms. The root extract is also drunk to cure gonorrhoea, stomach-ache, schistosomiasis, chest pain, hernia, pneumonia, chickenpox and as a purgative. The roots are chewed or a root extract is drunk to treat snakebites. Ground leaves mixed with water are applied externally against skin infections and taken in tea or porridge against poliomyelitis. Pulped leaves are taken in porridge to cure dysentery and to expel worms. The roots are used as a medicine by the Mijikenda people of Kenya to treat oedema. The use of extracts for the treatment of diabetes is aimed at symptoms such as bacterial and fungal infections, rather than the diabetes itself.
Properties
The leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins. A leaf extract of Suregada zanzibariensis showed significant activity against chloroquine resistant and sensitive strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 1.5 μg/ml). A leaf extract also showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro.
Botany
Dioecious shrub or small tree up to 10 m tall; bark grey, smooth, scaling towards the base of the bole; branches horizontal. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules triangular-ovate, c. 1 mm long, acute, soon falling; petiole 3–7 mm long; blade obovate to elliptical-oblanceolate, 2–13 cm Χ 1–7 cm, base cuneate or rounded, apex abruptly acuminate, margin entire or finely and irregularly toothed, leathery, pinnately veined with 5–9 pairs of looping lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary fascicle, rarely flowers solitary; bracts minute. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel 1–2 mm long, sepals nearly orbicular, 2.5–3 mm Χ 2–2.5 mm, with gland outside; petals absent; male flowers with usually 14 stamens, filaments 1–2 mm long; female flowers with 5-angular or shallowly 10-lobed disk, ovary superior, ovoid, 3-celled, c. 1.5 mm in diameter, styles 3 with 2-fid apex. Fruit a 3-lobed to almost globose capsule 7 mm Χ 8 mm, smooth, black when mature, late dehiscent, 3-seeded. Seeds ovoid, 4 mm Χ 4 mm, grey when dry and finely pitted. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Suregada comprises about 30 species, all occurring in the Old World tropics; 8 species occur in continental tropical Africa and 14 in Madagascar. Suregada adenophora Baill. and Suregada boiviniana Baill. (synonym: Suregada pycnanthera (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Croizat) occur throughout Madagascar and are used as purgatives; the fresh sap of Suregada decidua Radcl.-Sm. from West Madagascar is applied to wounds to promote healing.
Ecology
Suregada zanzibariensis occurs usually on sandy soils in woodland, riverine forest, coastal forest and in salt marshes, from sea-level up to 1200 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Suregada zanzibariensis is fairly widespread and not heavily exploited; hence there are no threats at present.
Prospects
The leaves of Suregada zanzibariensis show promise as a cure for malaria. Other Suregada species have antipyretic properties as well, and more pharmacological research is warranted.
Major references
• Bhatnagar, S. & Das, P., 2007. Antimalarial activity in tropical plants: a review. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 13(1): 103–132.
• Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A., 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (with Pandaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 1620 pp.
• Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd Edition. Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. 401 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1996. Euphorbiaceae, subfamilies Phyllantoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae, tribe Hippomaneae. In: Pope, G.V. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 9, part 4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 1–337.
Other references
• Gilbert, M.G., Holmes, S. & Thulin, M., 1993. Euphorbiaceae. In: Thulin, M. (Editor). Flora of Somalia. Volume 1. Pteridophyta; Gymnospermae; Angiospermae (Annonaceae-Fabaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 267–339.
• Hedberg, I., Hedberg, O., Madati, P.J., Mshigeni, K.E., Mshiu, E.N. & Samuelsson, G., 1983. Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Tanzania. II. Plants of the families Dilleniaceae-Opaliaceae. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9: 105–128.
• Moshi, M.J. & Mbwambo, Z.H., 2002. Experience of Tanzanian traditional healers in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Pharmaceutical Biology 40(7): 552–560.
• Omulokoli, E., Khan, B. & Chhabra, S.C., 1997. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56: 133–137.
• Pakia, M. & Cooke, J.A., 2003. The ethnobotany of the Midzichenda tribes of the coastal forest areas in Kenya: 2. Medicinal plant uses. South African Journal of Botany 69(3): 382–395.
• Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1991. Notes on Madagascan Euphorbiaceae IV: the genus Suregada in Madagascar and the Comoros. Kew Bulletin 45: 711–726.
• Runyoro, D.K.B., Matee, M.I.N., Ngassapa, O.D., Joseph, C.C. & Mbwambo, Z.H., 2006. Screening of Tanzanian medicinal plants for anti-Candida activity. [Internet] BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.biomedcentral.com/ 1472-6882/6/11. Accessed April 2008.
• Wongsatit Chuakul, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon & Orawan Ruangsomboon, 2003. Suregada Roxb. ex Rottl. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J. & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(3). Medicinal and poisonous plants 3. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 389–391.
Author(s)
• C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
• G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Rιduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
• C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
• R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
• A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
• R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
• L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2008. Suregada zanzibariensis Baill. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes mιdicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.