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Syrrheonema fasciculatum Miers

Protologue
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, 13: 124 (1864).
Family
Menispermaceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Syrrheonema fasciculatum occurs from Cameroon and Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) east to western Uganda and south to DR Congo.
Uses
In Congo the leaf sap is used against ophthalmia.
Botany
Dioecious liana up to 20 m long; stem up to 2.5 cm in diameter, hairy. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 4.5–10 cm long, bent at base and apex, densely short-hairy; blade ovate to almost orbicular, 5–25 cm × 5–25 cm, base cordate or truncate, apex acute to acuminate, thinly leathery, densely short-hairy, becoming nearly glabrous, palmately veined with 2–3 basal veins, prominent on the lower surface. Inflorescence an axillary head-like cyme 1–1.5 cm long; peduncle 1–2 cm long. Flowers unisexual; male flowers with 9–12 sepals, 1.5–2 mm × c. 1 mm, whitish, outside densely hairy, inside slightly hairy, petals 3–6, elliptical, c. 1.5 mm long, somewhat fleshy, apex fringed, stamens 6, c. 2.5 mm long, fused to halfway, free part of the filament thickened. Fruit composed of 3–5 almost globose drupes 1.5–2 cm in diameter, base truncate, short-hairy; stone hard and brittle, 1-seeded. Seed 12–17 mm long.
Syrrheonema comprises 3 species, 2 in Central Africa and 1 in West Africa.
Ecology
Syrrheonema fasciculatum occurs in rainforest, forest regrowth and fallow land, at 1200–1400 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Syrrheonema fasciculatum has a wide distribution and there are no indications that it is in danger of genetic erosion.
Prospects
As long as nothing is known about the chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Syrrheonema fasciculatum, it will remain of local importance only.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Bouquet, A., 1969. Féticheurs et médecines traditionnelles du Congo (Brazzaville). Mémoires ORSTOM No 36. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer. Paris, France. 282 pp.
• Troupin, G., 1962. Monographie des Menispermaceae africaines. Mémoires in-8. Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer, Classe des Sciences Naturelles et Médicales, Nouvelle série 8(2), Brussels, Belgium. 313 pp.
Other references
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Troupin, G., 1951. Menispermaceae. In: Robyns, W., Staner, P., Demaret, F., Germain, R., Gilbert, G., Hauman, L., Homès, M., Jurion, F., Lebrun, J., Vanden Abeele, M. & Boutique, R. (Editors). Flore du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes. Volume 2. Institut National pour l’Étude Agronomique du Congo belge, Brussels, Belgium. pp. 202–255.
Author(s)
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Oyen, L.P.A., 2008. Syrrheonema fasciculatum Miers. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.