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Tiliacora leonensis (Scott-Elliot) Diels

Protologue
Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 94: 67 (1910).
Family
Menispermaceae
Synonyms
Tiliacora dinklagei Engl. (1899), Tiliacora dielsiana Hutch. & Dalziel (1927).
Origin and geographic distribution
Tiliacora leonensis occurs in Guinea, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.
Uses
In Côte d’Ivoire an extract of the aerial parts is prescribed against dysentery, alone or in combination with leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll.Arg. Preparations of the bark, leaves or root are taken to treat cough, amenorrhoea and tachycardia. A paste of dried and ground leaves is given as an enema to pregnant women to help in the delivery of a heavy baby. The crushed leaves are applied to wounds. In Ghana a root decoction is taken against gastric fever, oedema of the legs and anaemia. The root is put in palm wine and drunk, or an extract of the aerial parts is drunk, in combination with Paullinia pinnata L., to improve sexual vigour.
The stem is used to make chew sticks and as tying material. The black fruits are edible.
Properties
The root contains bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids with curare-like action, including dinklacorine, funiferine, tiliacorinine, tiliageine and nortiliacorine A. Funiferine and nortiliacorine A have weak antimalarial and antimicrobial action. The root also contains the benzylisoquinoline alkaloid oblongine. In an in-vitro test the leaves did not show antitrypanosomal or antiplasmodial activity.
Botany
Dioecious, robust liana; bark greyish, striped; branches sparsely hairy. Leaves simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 1–1.5 cm long, fine-hairy; blade lanceolate or oblanceolate to elliptical, 9–20 cm × 3–7 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate, papery, glabrous except for the main vein, pinnately veined with 3–4 pairs of lateral veins, very prominent below. Inflorescence an axillary, many-flowered panicle with flowers in clusters, several inflorescences together; peduncle 4–12 cm long, shorter in female plants, densely hairy. Flowers small, unisexual; sepals 9(–12), 6(–9) outer ones bract-like, triangular to ovate, 1–2 mm long, 3 inner ones obovate to oblong, 2.5–6 mm long; petals 6, obovate-oblong, slightly fleshy; male flowers with 6–9 stamens 2–2.5 mm long, filaments fused to the middle; female flowers with superior ovary composed of 25–30 carpels. Fruit composed of almost sessile, compressed-ovoid drupelets 1.5–2 cm × 1–1.5 cm, stone compressed oblong, leathery but brittle, 1-seeded.
Tiliacora comprises about 20 species of which 3 occur in tropical Asia and 17 in Africa; it is in need of a taxonomic revision.
Ecology
Tiliacora leonensis occurs in rainforest and fringing forest.
Genetic resources and breeding
Tiliacora leonensis is fairly widespread and relatively common. It is not in danger of genetic erosion.
Prospects
Tiliacora leonensis will probably remain of local importance, mainly as a medicinal plant.
Major references
• Atindehou, K.K., Schmid, C., Brun, R., Koné, M.W. & Traoré, D., 2004. Antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90(2): 221–227.
• Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Troupin, G., 1962. Monographie des Menispermaceae africaines. Mémoires in-8. Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer, Classe des Sciences Naturelles et Médicales, Nouvelle série 8(2), Brussels, Belgium. 313 pp.
Other references
• Adjanohoun, E.J. & Aké Assi, L., 1979. Contribution au recensement des plantes médicinales de Côte d’Ivoire. Centre National de Floristique, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 358 pp.
• Dwuma-Badu, D., Ayim, J.S.K., Dabra, T.T., El-Azizi, M.M., Schiff, P.L.jr., Slatkin, D.J. & Knapp, J.E., 1983. Constituents of West African medicinal plants. XXV. Isolation of oblongine from Tiliacora dinklagei and the synthesis of oblongine and related benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Journal of Natural Products 46(3): 342–349.
• Dwuma-Badu, D., Ayim, J.S.K., Fiagbe, N.Y., Tackie, A.N., Knapp, J.E., Slatkin, D.J. & Schiff, P.L.jr., 1976. Constituents of west African medicinal plants. XV. Dinklacorine, a new biphenyl dibenzodioxin alkaloid from Tiliacora dinklagei. Lloydia 39(4): 213–217.
• Hawthorne, W. & Jongkind, C., 2006. Woody plants of western African forests: a guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. 1023 pp.
• Oliver-Bever, B., 1983. Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa 3. Anti-infection therapy with higher plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9: 1–83.
• Tackie, A.N., Dwuma-Badu, D., Ayim, J.S.K., Dabra, T.T., Knapp, J.E., Slatkin, D.J. & Schiff, P.L.jr., 1975. Constituents of West African medicinal plants. VII. Alkaloids of Tiliacora dinklagei. Lloydia 38(3): 210–212.
• Tackie, A.N., Dwuma-Badu, D., Dabra, T.T., Knapp, J.E., Slatkin, D.J. & Schiff, P.L.jr., 1976. Constituents of West African medicinal plants. V. Tiliageine, a new bisbenzylisoquinoline biphenyl alkaloid from Tiliacora dinklagei. Experientia 30(8): 847–348.
Author(s)
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
A. Gurib-Fakim
Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Associate editors
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
M.S.J. Simmonds
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
R. Arroo
Leicester School of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, United Kingdom
A. de Ruijter
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Oyen, L.P.A., 2008. Tiliacora leonensis (Scott-Elliot) Diels. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.