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Tina striata Radlk.

Protologue
Sitz.-Ber. Bayer. Akad. 9: 525, 651 (1879).
Family
Sapindaceae
Origin and geographic distribution
Tina striata is endemic to Madagascar, where it occurs widespread in the central and eastern regions.
Uses
The wood of Tina striata is especially valued for boat building. It is also used as firewood although it takes a long time to dry. A decoction made of the leaves and twigs is used as an aphrodisiac, in the treatment of epilepsy and to speed up the closing of the fontanel in babies.
Properties
The bark of Tina striata contains tannins that belong to the group of condensed tannins of the proanthocyanidin type.
Botany
Dioecious small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall; twigs slightly grooved, short-hairy. Leaves alternate, paripinnately compound with (1–)2–10(–13) pairs of leaflets; stipules absent; leaflets opposite to alternate, elliptical to obovate, (1.5–)2.5–10 cm long, cuneate and usually slightly asymmetrical at base, usually rounded at apex, margins slightly toothed, leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with many lateral veins. Inflorescence an axillary panicle up to 17 cm long, short-hairy. Flowers unisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel c. 1 mm long; sepals free, ovate, 1–1.5 mm long, short-hairy outside, yellowish green; petals free, ovate, 1–1.5 mm long, short-hairy, white, with 2 small lateral scales; stamens 8, free, up to 3 mm long, hairy; ovary superior, 2-celled, style thick and short; male flowers with rudimentary ovary, female flowers with reduced stamens. Fruit an obovoid to nearly globose capsule 1–2 cm long, yellow to orange, glabrous, dehiscent, 2-valved, 1-seeded. Seed obovoid, 0.5–1 cm long, basal part covered by a waxy aril.
Tina striata is morphologically variable and 5 subspecies have been distinguished, mainly differing in number and size of the leaflets and the presence or absence of small pits in the leaflet surface.
Tina comprises 6 species and is endemic to Madagascar. The wood of Tina chapelieriana (Cambess.) Kalkman, a small tree of up to 10 m tall with a bole diameter up to 60 cm, is yellowish, heavy, hard and durable. It is used for construction, carpentry and railway sleepers. The bark is used as fish poison. The wood of Tina dasycarpa Radlk., Tina fulvinervis Radlk., Tina isaloensis Drake and Tina thouarsiana (Cambess.) Capuron, all small trees up to 10 m tall, is mainly used for boat building.
The genera Neotina and Molinaea closely resemble Tina; they are difficult to distinguish unless in fruit, and have the same vernacular names and probably also uses.
Ecology
Tina striata is found in humid and subhumid evergreen forest from sea-level up to 2200 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
Tina striata is widespread in Madagascar and there seems to be no reason to consider it threatened at present. Its variation is remarkable and deserves more attention.
Prospects
Knowledge on Tina striata and other Tina spp. is very limited and only further study could reveal serious opportunities for more extensive use of the species.
Major references
• Boiteau, P., Boiteau, M. & Allorge-Boiteau, L., 1999. Dictionnaire des noms malgaches de végétaux. 4 Volumes + Index des noms scientifiques avec leurs équivalents malgaches. Editions Alzieu, Grenoble, France.
• Capuron, R., 1969. Révision des Sapindacées de Madagascar et des Comores. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Nouvelle série, Série B, Botanique 19: 1–189.
Other references
• Bärner, J. & Müller, J.F., 1942. Die Nutzhölzer der Welt. Volume 2. Neumann, Neudamm, Germany. 780 pp.
• Brown, K.A., Ingram, J.C., Flynn, D.F.B., Razafindrazaka, R. & Jeannoda, V., 2009. Protected area safeguard tree and shrub communities from degradation and invasion: a case study in eastern Madagascar. Environmental Management 44:136–148
• Buerki, S., Forest, F., Acevedo-Rodriguez, P., Callmander, M.W., Nylander, J.A.A., Harrington, M., Sanmartin, I., Kupfer, P. & Alvarez, N., 2009. Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51(2): 238–258.
• Carrière, S.M., Andrianotahiananahary, H., Ranaivoarivelo, N, & Randriamalala, J., 2005. Savoirs et usages des recrus post-agricoles du pays Betsileo: valorisation d’une biodiversité oubliée à Madagascar. VertigO 6(1) : 1–15.
• Debray, M., Jacquemin, H. & Razafindrambao, R., 1971. Contribution à l’inventaire des plantes médicinales de Madagascar. Travaux et Documents No 8. ORSTOM, Paris, France. 150 pp.
• Hegnauer, R., 1990. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Band 9. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. 786 pp.
• Vary, L.B., Lance, S.L., Hagen, C., Tsyusko, O., Glenn, T.C., Sakai, A.K. & Weller, S.G., 2009. Characterization of microsatellite loci from the Malagasy endemic, Tina striata Radlk. (Sapindaceae). Conservation Genetics 10: 1113–1115.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Associate editors
E.A. Obeng
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Photo editor
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2011. Tina striata Radlk. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Louppe, D. & Oteng-Amoako, A.A. (Editors). Prota 7(2): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 2. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


Tina striata