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Triplochiton scleroxylon K.Schum.

Protologue
Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 331 (1900).
Family
Sterculiaceae (APG: Malvaceae)
Chromosome number
2n = 40
Synonyms
Triplochiton nigericum Sprague (1909).
Vernacular names
African whitewood, African maple, ayous, obeche, wawa (En). Ayous, obeche, samba (Fr).
Origin and geographic distribution
Triplochiton scleroxylon is widely distributed in the West and Central African forest zone from Guinea east to the Central African Republic, and south to Gabon and DR Congo. It is commonly planted in its natural area of distribution (e.g. in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria), and occasionally elsewhere, e.g. in the Solomon Islands.
Uses
The wood is widely used for interior joinery, panelling, moulding, furniture, boxes and crates, sculptures, matches, pencils, peeled and sliced veneer for interior and exterior parts of plywood, fibre and particle boards, and blockboard. It is of great importance for house building, for beams, posts and planks, and is also used for roof shingles. The wood from the buttresses is used to make doors, platters, bowls and sandals, and the bole is used for dugout canoes. The wood pulp can be used to produce paper of moderate quality.
The leaves are prepared as a cooked vegetable or sauce in traditional cuisine in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin. The bark is used to cover the roof and walls of huts. It is also applied in traditional medicine to treat oedemas and as an anodyne. Triplochiton scleroxylon is a food plant of the silkworm Anaphe venata, the larvae of which are a good source of protein and commonly eaten. Sawdust is used for the production of edible fungi (Pleurotus spp.). The trees are often preserved in cocoa plantations to serve as shade trees.
Production and international trade
Triplochiton scleroxylon used to be the major timber tree of West and Central Africa. In 1959 Ghana exported 650,000 m³ of logs and 30,000 m³ of sawn timber, while the export of logs from Nigeria was 350,000 m³, from Côte d’Ivoire 91,000 m³ and from Cameroon 1750 m³. In 1973 Côte d’Ivoire exported over 1 million m³ of logs and Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon together 400,000 m³ of logs and 40,000 m³ of sawn timber. In 1983 export from Côte d’Ivoire decreased to 230,000 m³, reflecting the loss in forest area. Currently, it is economically the most important timber species of Ghana and Cameroon, making up about 70% of the volume of timber products exported from Ghana and 35% from Cameroon. In 1996 the volume of Triplochiton scleroxylon timber (‘ayous’) exported from Cameroon (mainly as logs) was estimated at 700,000 m³ and in 1998 475,000 m³. In 2001 the export of logs and sawn timber from Cameroon amounted to 29,000 m³ and 11,000 m³, respectively, according to ITTO statistics, with a mean price of US$ 93/m³ for logs and US$ 435/m³ for sawn timber. Also in 2001, the export of sawn Triplochiton scleroxylon timber from Côte d’Ivoire (‘samba’) was 109,000 m³, with a mean price of US$ 220/m³, and 2000 m³ veneer was exported, with a mean price of US$ 287/m³; the export of sawn timber from Ghana (‘wawa’) was 114,000 m³ in 2001, with a mean price of US$ 246/m³, and 80,000 m³ in 2002. In 2003 export from Cameroon was 86,000 m³ of logs, mainly to Italy and China, and 282,000 m³ of sawn timber, mainly to Italy and Spain.
Properties
The heartwood is whitish to pale yellow, indistinctly demarcated from the sapwood, which is up to 15 cm thick. The grain is usually interlocked, sometimes straight, texture moderately coarse. The wood has a ribbon-like aspect on quarter-sawn faces, and is lustrous. Fresh wood has an unpleasant smell, which disappears upon drying.
The wood of Triplochiton scleroxylon is lightweight, the density is 320–440(–490) kg/m³ at 12% moisture content. The shrinkage rates are moderately low, from green to oven dry 2.5–4.1% radial and 4.2–6.6% tangential. The timber dries easily and rapidly, with only a slight risk of distortion and checking. The use of large spacer sticks is recommended during air drying to allow good air circulation. Once dry, the wood is stable in service.
At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 52–110 N/mm², modulus of elasticity 4800–9200 N/mm², compression parallel to grain 24–43 N/mm², shear 3–8 N/mm², cleavage 5–15 N/mm, Janka side hardness 1910–2100 N and Janka end hardness 3070–3600 N.
The wood works easily with hand and machine tools; ordinary saw teeth and cutting tools can be used. However, sharp edges are needed for a smooth finish, and the wood tends to tear in mortising. A cutting angle of 15° is recommended when planing to prevent tearing. The peeling and slicing properties are good. The wood stains and polishes well. Filling is recommended to obtain a good finish. The nailing and screwing properties are rather poor; splitting may occur. Gluing does not cause problems, although it must be done carefully as the wood is absorbent. The carving characteristics are good.
The wood is not durable, being liable to fungal attack (e.g. blue stain), and susceptible to termites, powder-post beetles and dry-wood borers. It should not be used in contact with the ground or exposed to the weather. The heartwood is somewhat resistant to preservative treatment. In an autoclave, the wood absorbs 140 l/m³ of preservative.
The sawdust may cause occupational allergic contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma.
The pulping properties of the wood are moderate. Unbleached and bleached kraft pulps of good yield and quality were made from a mixture of wood chips including Triplochiton scleroxylon.
Fresh leaves have a moisture content of 74.7%, and they contain per 100 g dry matter: energy 668 kJ (160 kcal), protein 29.2 g, fat 2.2 g, starch 3.0 g, sugar 2.3 g, fibre 51.0 g, Ca 1114 mg, Mg 551 mg, Fe 9.2 mg, β-carotene 16.5 mg, riboflavin 0.78 mg and ascorbic acid 165 mg (Herzog, Farah & Amado, 1993). The mucilage content of the leaves per 100 g was 4.2 g, compared to 9.1 g in the fruits of common okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).
Adulterations and substitutes
The wood of Triplochiton scleroxylon can be replaced by other lightweight and whitish wood such as that of Alstonia boonei De Wild., Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. and Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.
Description
Large deciduous tree up to 50 m tall; bole straight, often angular and strongly ridged, branchless for up to 30 m, up to 150(–210) cm in diameter, with low to very high (up to 8 m) buttresses; bark 7–30 mm thick, grey to yellowish brown, smooth when young, becoming scaly with age, often with vertical lines of lenticels; crown dense and rounded, with heavy, not far-spreading branches. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules linear, 2–4 cm long, early caducous and leaving annular scars; petiole (1.5–)3–10 cm long; blade palmately 5–7-lobed, up to 20 cm long and wide, cordate at base, lobes broadly ovate or triangular, obtuse to acute at apex, brown stellate hairy when young but soon becoming glabrous. Inflorescence an axillary or terminal panicle up to 10 cm long, densely hairy; bracts c. 0.5 cm long, early caducous. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel 3–4 mm long, articulate at base; sepals triangular, c. 7 mm long, brown stellately hairy; petals broadly obovate, c. 1 cm long, pinkish white but purple at base, densely silky hairy; androgynophore c. 3 mm long, hairy; stamens 30–40, connate at base in pairs; ovary surrounded by 5 petal-like staminodes, consisting of 5 free carpels, styles connate. Fruit consisting of 1–5 rhombic nuts c. 2 cm × 1 cm with a large wing 4–6 cm × 1–2 cm. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl c. 7 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, rounded, 2.5–3 cm in diameter, 3–5-veined from the base.
Other botanical information
Triplochiton comprises only 2 species. It resembles Mansonia, which differs in its entire leaves and spathaceous calyx. Triplochiton zambesiacus Milne-Redh. occurs in southern Africa.
Anatomy
Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):
Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium ( 7–10 μm); 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; 42: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100–200 μm; 43: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 200 μm; 46: 5 vessels per square millimetre; (47: 5–20 vessels per square millimetre); (56: tyloses common). Tracheids and fibres: 61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits; 66: non-septate fibres present; 69: fibres thin- to thick-walled. Axial parenchyma: 77: axial parenchyma diffuse-in-aggregates; (86: axial parenchyma in narrow bands or lines up to three cells wide); (89: axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands); 90: fusiform parenchyma cells; 91: two cells per parenchyma strand; 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand. Rays: 98: larger rays commonly 4- to 10-seriate; (99: larger rays commonly > 10-seriate); 102: ray height > 1 mm; 106: body ray cells procumbent with one row of upright and/or square marginal cells; 107: body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2–4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells; 110: sheath cells present; 111: tile cells present; 115: 4–12 rays per mm. Storied structure: 119: low rays storied, high rays non-storied; 120: axial parenchyma and/or vessel elements storied; 121: fibres storied. Mineral inclusions: 136: prismatic crystals present; 137: prismatic crystals in upright and/or square ray cells; 141: prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells.
(N.P. Mollel, P. Détienne & E.A. Wheeler)
Growth and development
Under natural conditions seedlings may reach 15 m tall and 15 cm in stem diameter after 4 years. Mean annual diameter increment in the forest averages 1 cm, but in Nigeria mean annual diameter increments of up to 2.5 cm have been recorded and in the Central African Republic as low as 0.3 cm. In a 19-year-old plantation in Ghana with 600 stems/ha, the trees were on average 21.8 m tall with a bole diameter of 27 cm. In Nigeria half of the annual diameter increment takes place from mid April to mid July.
The bole and branches of Triplochiton scleroxylon are all orthotropic and branching is rhythmic, corresponding to Rauh’s model of tree architecture. Normally, the trees do not flower until 15 years old. In Ghana and Nigeria flowering occurs during the long dry season between November and March when the trees have a leafless period. In Liberia trees flower in December–January, when the leaves are usually shed. It has been observed that flower initiation is associated with changing temperature. The fragrant flowers open late in the day and wither within 18 hours; they are pollinated by insects. Cross pollination is needed for the production of viable seed. The trees produce fruits very irregularly, but mast production occurs with intervals of several years. Fruit development extends into the start of the rainy season, and is frequently impaired by pests, such as the fruit-boring weevil Apion ghanaensis and pathogens including the smut fungus Mycosyrinx sp. The fruits are dispersed by wind. In Liberia ripe fruits are present in January–March.
Ecology
Triplochiton scleroxylon is characteristic for semi-deciduous forest, where it often grows gregariously, but it can sometimes be found in clearings in dense evergreen forest and in dry forest. In Nigeria it is almost exclusively limited to moist forest areas at low and medium altitudes. It occurs up to 900 m altitude in regions with an annual rainfall of up to 3000 mm, but is most abundant at 200–400 m altitude and in areas with an annual rainfall of 1100–1800 mm and 2 rainy seasons. It prefers more fertile, well-drained, ferruginous soils with light or medium texture and acid to neutral pH. It does not tolerate waterlogging, and in general avoids swamps. It is a light-demanding pioneer species. Seedlings may be very abundant in forest gaps of larger sizes, and the tree is characteristic of secondary forest.
Propagation and planting
Most fruits collected from the ground have been attacked by insects. The fruits can be collected from the trees when still green just before maturation. One kg comprises about 3000 winged fruits. Seeds start to germinate 1–2 weeks after sowing, but the germination rate is often low. Fruits stored at –18°C fully retained their viability for 18 months. However, at 25°C viability drops from about 80% to 15% after 6 months. Fruits stored at 8–15% moisture content lost only a little viability after 12 months, but soon thereafter viability declined sharply; when stored at 30% moisture content they lost their viability quickly. More than 50% of the seeds may still germinate after being stored for 7.5 years in sealed containers at 4°C. Germination rate and speed increase when the seeds are pre-treated by moistening between layers of damp cotton wool. Fruits with wings removed are shallowly buried in pots, which are placed under shade. The seedlings are pricked out when first leaves appear. They are fragile and sensitive to damping off. They develop a taproot, which is often forked, with few lateral roots in the upper 15 cm of the soil. The taproot of a 2 m tall sapling may be 1 m long. Seedlings of 1–3 years old with their tops intact but the root system severely cut back to permit planting in 40 cm × 40 cm × 40 cm holes were successful. However, it has also been observed that cutting the primary root for planting causes serious drawbacks; new roots form slowly, which makes the plant liable to parasitic attacks. Single-node cuttings with one leaf were rooted successfully under mist; rooting was improved by a hormone dip and a high temperature in the bed (30°C). Cuttings 10 cm long with 2–4 leaves taken from 2-month-old branches are also used. These are placed in a nursery under 40–60% shade under mist. It takes about 12 weeks to obtain a rooted and hardened plantlet. Marcotting is possible by ringing a branch at an internode; results are optimal when the foliage is at maximum density, between August and October, with up to 50% success in 12-year-old trees.
Planting out is usually done at the beginning of the rainy season. Normally potted seedlings of about 30 cm tall are planted in holes 40 cm wide, after cutting the base of the pot to remove deformed roots. In 2–3 weeks the stumps develop several sprouts, of which one takes the lead. The survival rate of stumps of one year old (2.5–4 cm in diameter) is usually 50–60%. They are liable to termite attack and to suppression by weeds. When planted at 3 m × 3 m spacings, the canopy can close after 3 years.
In Ghana planting under a taungya management system has given good results. Silvicultural practice in Côte d’Ivoire is directed towards maximum sunlight for tree crowns and limiting competition by early and regular clearings. In general 50% of the trees are cut when they have reached 6–7 m tall.
Management
Production of Triplochiton scleroxylon timber is usually in natural forest under selective logging. In Côte d’Ivoire Triplochiton scleroxylon has been planted since 1930 in mixed timber plantations, e.g. with Khaya and Terminalia spp. From 1967 to 1995 about 3000 ha was planted in Côte d’Ivoire. Plantations have a cutting cycle of less than 40 years. In Nigeria Triplochiton scleroxylon is planted in agroforestry systems with cocoa. The results of plantations in the Solomon Islands have been rated as good, with well-formed, fast growing and self-pruning trees.
Diseases and pests
The roots are very sensitive to fungal rot. In Nigeria the cricket Gymnogryllus lucens, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus and the psyllid Diclidophlebia sp. can cause serious damage to seedlings, and the wood borers Eulophonotus obesus and Trachyostus ghanaensis to adult trees. The silkworm Anaphe venata is a defoliator of the trees. Beetles such as the bostrychid Apate monachus bore holes up to 1 cm in diameter into the wood.
Harvesting
Harvesting is done throughout the year. It involves felling and cross-cutting of the logs using power chain saws and skidding the log parts to a central log yard. The minimum diameter limit for cutting is 60 cm in Côte d’Ivoire, 80 cm in Cameroon and 90 cm in Ghana. Defects of logs include brittle heart, ring shakes, black holes and grub holes.
Yield
In Ghana the total standing volume was estimated at 3930 m³/km² in inventories in 2001, and exploitable volume 1650 m³/km². The annual allowable cut has been fixed at 816 m³/km². In the 1960s, total standing volumes above 60 cm diameter were estimated at 2350 m³/km² in Cameroon, 1410 m³/km² in Côte d’Ivoire, 1350 m³/km² in the Central African Republic and 610 m³/km² in Congo.
The final harvest in plantations in Côte d’Ivoire yields 200–250 m³/ha of timber, of which 170–200 m³ from the bole, with an annual volume increment of 8–13 m³/ha.
Handling after harvest
Logs should be removed from the forest or treated as soon as possible after cutting because they are susceptible to fungal and insect attacks. Logs of Triplochiton scleroxylon float in water, and can therefore be transported by river. In Ghana logs are usually transported to processing mills or log markets by means of articulated hauling rigs.
Genetic resources
As a widely distributed pioneer species Triplochiton scleroxylon is not easily liable to genetic erosion, but in many regions within its distribution area it is under pressure because of excessive exploitation. In Ghana it is considered vulnerable; it is still common, but under profound pressure. In Liberia stocks are limited. Gene banks and clonal trials representing the whole geographical range of Triplochiton scleroxylon have been established at 5 sites in Nigeria. In Côte d’Ivoire slightly over 100 superior trees have been selected from a stand of over 50,000 trees to serve as mother trees for the large-scale production of cuttings.
Breeding
Selection of superior germplasm using DNA techniques is currently being pursued in Ghana.
Prospects
There are good opportunities for highly productive clonal timber plantations of Triplochiton scleroxylon. In tests, wood material from plantation-grown trees was found not inferior to that from trees harvested in natural forest. The erratic seed production is a major drawback for the establishment of plantations, but methods of relatively cheap vegetative propagation are possible and will offer great opportunities when superior germplasm becomes available. The high growth rates, allowing comparatively short cutting cycles, the generally good form of the boles, and the possibility of planting in mixtures with other timber species make Triplochiton scleroxylon even more promising.
Major references
• Burkill, H.M., 2000. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 5, Families S–Z, Addenda. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 686 pp.
• Chudnoff, M., 1980. Tropical timbers of the world. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No 607, Washington D.C., United States. 826 pp.
• CIRAD Forestry Department, 2003. Ayous. [Internet] Tropix 5.0. http://tropix.cirad.fr/ afr/ayous.pdf. Accessed June 2005.
• CTFT (Centre Technique Forestier Tropical), 1976. Samba (obeche). Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 167: 39–54.
• Herzog, F., Farah, Z. & Amado, R., 1993. Nutritive value of four wild vegetables in Côte d'Ivoire. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 63(3): 234–238.
• Palla, F. & Louppe, D., 2002. Obeché. Forafri, Libreville, Gabon & Cirad-forêt, Montpellier, France. 6 pp.
• Richter, H.G. & Dallwitz, M.J., 2000. Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. [Internet]. Version 18th October 2002. http://delta-intkey.com/wood/index.htm. Accessed June 2005.
• Siepel, A., Poorter, L. & Hawthorne, W.D., 2004. Ecological profiles of large timber species. In: Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Kouamé, F.N. & Hawthorne, W.D. (Editors). Biodiversity of West African forests. An ecological atlas of woody plant species. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. pp. 391–445.
• Vernay, M., 2005. Un exemple d’utilisation de l’ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon) dans la construction. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 284: 35–43.
• Voorhoeve, A.G., 1979. Liberian high forest trees. A systematic botanical study of the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees, with reference to numerous related species. Agricultural Research Reports 652, 2nd Impression. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands. 416 pp.
Other references
• Ashiru, M.O., 1988. The frequency distribution of eggs and larvae of Anaphe venata Butler (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) on Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Insect Science and its Application 9(5): 587–592.
• Ashiru, M.O. & Momodu, B., 1981. Wood-boring habits of Eulophonotus obesus on Triplochiton scleroxylon. Malaysian Forester 44(4): 473–481.
• Attah, A.N., Bues, C.-T. & Sagor, J.A., 2005. Accelerated kiln drying of wawa (Triplochiton scleroxylon) sawn timber. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 284: 23–33.
• Bosch, C.H., 2004. Triplochiton zambesiacus Milne-Redh. In: Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, Netherlands / Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands / CTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. p. 535.
• Dick, J.M., Leakey, R.R.B., McBeath, C., Harvey, F., Smith, R.I. & Woods, C., 2004. Influence of nutrient application on growth and rooting potential of the West African hardwood Triplochiton scleroxylon. Tree Physiology 24(1): 35–44.
• Germain, R. & Bamps, P., 1963. Sterculiaceae. In: Robyns, W., Staner, P., Demaret, F., Germain, R., Gilbert, G., Hauman, L., Homès, M., Jurion, F., Lebrun, J., Vanden Abeele, M. & Boutique, R. (Editors). Flore du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes. Volume 10. Institut National pour l’Étude Agronomique du Congo belge, Brussels, Belgium. pp. 205–316.
• Hall, J.B. & Swaine, M.D., 1981. Distribution and ecology of vascular plants in a tropical rain forest: forest vegetation of Ghana. W. Junk Publishers, the Hague, Netherlands. 383 pp.
• Hallé, N., 1961. Sterculiacées. Flore du Gabon. Volume 2. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. 150 pp.
• Hawthorne, W.D. & Abu Juam, M., 1995. Forest protection in Ghana. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom. 203 pp.
• InsideWood, undated. [Internet] http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search/. Accessed May 2007.
• Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody plants of Ghana, with special reference to their uses. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom. 868 pp.
• Leakey, R.R.B., 1992. Enhancement of rooting ability in Triplochiton scleroxylon by injecting stockplants with auxins. Forest Ecology and Management 54: 305–313.
• Nketiah, T., Newton, A.C. & Leakey, R.R.B., 1999. Vegetative propagation of Triplochiton scleroxylon in Ghana: effects of cutting origin. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11(2): 512–515.
• Onilude, M.A. & Ogunsanwo, O.Y., 2002. Mechanical properties of plantation grown obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and their relationships with wood specific gravity. Journal of Tropical Forest Products 8(2): 160–167.
• Takahashi, A., 1978. Compilation of data on the mechanical properties of foreign woods (part 3) Africa. Shimane University, Matsue, Japan. 248 pp.
• Wagner, M.R., Atuahene, S.K.N. & Cobbinah, J.R., 1991. Forest entomology in West Tropical Africa: Forest insects of Ghana. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 210 pp.
• Wilks, C. & Issembé, Y., 2000. Les arbres de la Guinée Equatoriale: Guide pratique d’identification: région continentale. Projet CUREF, Bata, Guinée Equatoriale. 546 pp.
• World Agroforestry Centre, undated. Agroforestree Database. [Internet] World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree. Accessed June 2005.
Sources of illustration
• Hallé, N., 1961. Sterculiacées. Flore du Gabon. Volume 2. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. 150 pp.
• Voorhoeve, A.G., 1979. Liberian high forest trees. A systematic botanical study of the 75 most important or frequent high forest trees, with reference to numerous related species. Agricultural Research Reports 652, 2nd Impression. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands. 416 pp.
• Wilks, C. & Issembé, Y., 2000. Les arbres de la Guinée Equatoriale: Guide pratique d’identification: région continentale. Projet CUREF, Bata, Guinée Equatoriale. 546 pp.
Author(s)
P.P. Bosu
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
E. Krampah
Kumasi, Ghana


Editors
D. Louppe
CIRAD, Département Environnements et Sociétés, Cirad es-dir, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA C-DIR / B (Bât. C, Bur. 113), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
A.A. Oteng-Amoako
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
J.R. Cobbinah
Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), University P.O. Box 63, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Photo editor
E. Boer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosu, P.P. & Krampah, E., 2005. Triplochiton scleroxylon K.Schum. In: Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). Prota 7(1): Timbers/Bois d’œuvre 1. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Distribution Map wild


1, base of bole; 2, flowering twig; 3, fruit.
Redrawn and adapted by Iskak Syamsudin



tree habit


habit of trees


felling


felled tree


planks
obtained from Arnhemse Fijnhouthandel



wood (tangential surface)


wood (radial surface)


wood in transverse section


wood in tangential section


wood in radial section


transverse surface of wood