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Astragalus atropilosulus (Hochst.) Bunge

Protologue
Mem. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb., Ser. 7, 15(1): 4 (1869).
Family
Papilionaceae (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae, Fabaceae)
Synonyms
Astragalus abyssinicus Steud. ex A.Rich. (1847).
Origin and geographic distribution
Astragalus atropilosulus occurs from Sudan and Eritrea south to northern South Africa, extending west into the extreme east of DR Congo. It is also found in Yemen and southwestern Saudi-Arabia.
Uses
In Malawi the cooked leaves are eaten as a side dish, sometimes mixed with leaves of Solanum nigrum L. In Kenya a decoction of the roots is added to hot milk and given to women with uterine pains after childbirth.
Properties
Phytochemical analysis of the whole plant showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and sterols/triterpenes. An ethanolic extract produced a decrease in heart contractions and a fall in blood pressure in rabbits, neuromuscular blocking activity in rats and frogs, and hypernatraemia in rats.
Botany
Erect, perennial herb. Leaves alternate, up to 25 cm long, imparipinnate with 11–51 leaflets; stipules large, leaf-like, entire, broadly triangular-ovate; rachis nearly glabrous, sometimes pubescent; leaflets opposite, narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, up to 3 cm × 1.5 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence a many-flowered raceme; bracts linear, whitish. Flowers bisexual, papilionaceous, 5-merous; calyx tube 1.5 mm long, upper teeth 0.5 mm long, lower teeth up to 2 mm long; corolla purplish, white or yellow, with standard up to 1.3 cm long. Fruit a lanceolate pod up to 4 cm × 7 mm.
Astragalus comprises about 2000 species and is mainly north temperate in distribution, with the largest number of species in western and central Asia. A few species are known in northern Africa from dry areas. In the more humid highlands of Africa Astragalus is represented by a single variable species, Astragalus atropilosulus, in which several subspecies and varieties have been distinguished.
Ecology
Astragalus atropilosulus is found in upland grassland and scrub vegetation, along streams, forest margins and in disturbed habitats, at 800–3800 m altitude.
Genetic resources and breeding
A few accessions of Astragalus atropilosulus from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe are held in genebanks in Ethiopia, Kenya, Australia and Colombia. The variation present in the species is not likely to have been captured in these collections. Even so, as Astragalus atropilosulus is widely distributed and common it is not likely to be threatened by genetic erosion.
Prospects
As a vegetable Astragalus atropilosulus is likely to remain of some importance only locally.
Major references
• Gillett, J.B., 1964. Astragalus L. (Leguminosae) in the highlands of tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 17(3): 413–423.
• Gillett, J.B., Polhill, R.M., Verdcourt, B., Schubert, B.G., Milne-Redhead, E., & Brummitt, R.K., 1971. Leguminosae (Parts 3–4), subfamily Papilionoideae (1–2). In: Milne-Redhead, E. & Polhill, R.M. (Editors). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 1108 pp.
• Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd Edition. Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. 401 pp.
• Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (Editors), 2003. Leguminosae (Papilionoideae: Loteae, Galegeae, Vicieae, Cicereae, Trifolieae, Podalyrieae, Crotalarieae & Genisteae). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 3, part 7. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 274 pp.
• Williamson, J., 1955. Useful plants of Nyasaland. The Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland. 168 pp.
Other references
• Al-Yahya, M.A., Mossa, J.S., Al-Badr, A.A., Tariq, M. & Al-Meshai, I.A., 1987. Phytochemical and biological studies on Saudi medicinal plants: Part 12. A study on Saudi plants of family "Leguminosae". International Journal of Crude Drug Research 25(2): 65–71.
• Thulin, M., 1989. Fabaceae (Leguminosae). In: Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (Editors). Flora of Ethiopia. Volume 3. Pittosporaceae to Araliaceae. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. pp. 49–251.
• Wenninger, J., 1991. Revision von Astragalus L. Sect. Chlorostachys Bunge, Sect. Phyllolobium Bunge und Sect. Skythropos Simpson (Leguminosae). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 30: 1–196.
Author(s)
C.H. Bosch
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands


Editors
G.J.H. Grubben
Boeckweijdt Consult, Prins Hendriklaan 24, 1401 AT Bussum, Netherlands
O.A. Denton
National Horticultural Research Institute, P.M.B. 5432, Idi-Ishin, Ibadan, Nigeria
Associate editors
C.-M. Messiaen
Bat. B 3, Résidence La Guirlande, 75, rue de Fontcarrade, 34070 Montpellier, France
R.R. Schippers
De Boeier 7, 3742 GD Baarn, Netherlands
General editors
R.H.M.J. Lemmens
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
L.P.A. Oyen
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article:
Bosch, C.H., 2004. Astragalus atropilosulus (Hochst.) Bunge. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. <http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp>. Accessed .